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Human Rights Council Adopts Outcome of Universal Periodic Review of Jamaica and Libya

By United Nations – Office of the UN High Commissioner for Huma

Starts General Debate on the Universal Periodic Review Mechanism The Human Rights Council this afternoon adopted the outcome of the Universal Periodic Review of Jamaica and Libya, before starting a general debate on the Universal Periodic Review mechanism. Wayne McCook, Permanent Representative of Jamaica to the United Nations Office at Geneva, said that Jamaica had accepted recommendations to establish a national human rights institution and to conduct human rights training and sensitization, and continued to take steps to end prejudice and stigmatization affecting all Jamaicans, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons. The Government had already accepted recommendations regarding the Independent Commission of Investigation, which investigated alleged excessive use of force, and therefore regarded as redundant the recommendation to amend the Coroner's Act to strengthen the Commission's powers. In the discussion, speakers welcomed Jamaica's achievements in the field of human rights despite financial restraints, as well as its commitment to reform the justice sector and to establish a national human rights institution. Speakers welcomed the strengthening of Jamaica's legal framework relating to the rights of the child and persons with disabilities, and encouraged continued efforts to combat poverty and strengthen access to education, employment and health services. Speakers were concerned about impunity for excessive use of force by police forces, about violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons and about the absence of a formal moratorium on the use of the death penalty. Speaking were Sierra Leone, Venezuela, Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, China, Cuba, Philippines and Rwanda. Also speaking were the non-governmental organizations International Lesbian and Gay Association (joint statement), Amnesty International and Rencontre Africaine pour la Défense des Droits de l'Homme. Salwa Eldaghili, Chargé d'Affaires at the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations Office at Geneva, said Libya was undergoing a very difficult transitional phase and faced formidable political, economic and security challenges. She highlighted the crucial need for support from the international community for putting an end to human rights violations and abuses, ensuring accountability, and ending impunity, and to address security challenges, including increasing terrorism by Daesh, smuggling, and trafficking in persons linked with illegal migration. In the discussion, speakers said the human rights situation in Libya remained of serious concern, in particular reports of arbitrary detention, torture, enforced disappearances, trafficking in persons in the context of migration, gender violence, and impunity for those violations. Speakers, however, noted the challenges that Libya encountered to ensure peace and security and called on the international community to support its efforts to restore human rights, security and the rule of law. Speaking were Estonia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kuwait, Latvia, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Rwanda, State of Palestine, Sudan, Togo, United Kingdom, Venezuela, Algeria and Angola. Also speaking were United Nations Watch, Article 19, Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, Arab Commission for Human Rights, Amnesty International, World Organization Against Torture, Rencontre Africaine pour la Défense des Droits de l'Homme, and Centre Indépendent de Recherches et d'Initiatives pour le Dialogue. The Council then held a general debate on the Universal Periodic Review, during which speakers reiterated their support for this mechanism and highlighted its contribution to the promotion and protection of human rights. Speakers stressed the importance of objectivity, non-selectivity and non-politicization, and called for restraint in the number of recommendations made so as to make implementation more effective. They encouraged the submission of mid-term reports focusing on the implementation of accepted recommendations. Speakers then highlighted the crucial role of civil society organizations and condemned acts of reprisals or intimidation against human rights defenders engaging in the Universal Periodic Review process. Speaking in the general debate were Luxembourg on behalf of the European Union, Saudi Arabia on behalf of the Arab Group, Brazil on behalf of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries, Algeria on behalf of the African Group, Morocco, Sierra Leone, Venezuela, Namibia, China, the Maldives, Albania, India, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ghana, Luxembourg, Iran, Grenada and Solomon Islands. Also speaking were UPR-Info, Cameroon Youths and Students Forum for Peace, Human Rights Law Centre, International Educational Development, Canners International Permanent Committee, United Schools International, Centre for Environmental and Management Studies and International Association for Democracy in Africa. The Human Rights Council will resume its work on Monday, 28 September at 9 a.m. to conclude its general debate on the Universal Periodic Review mechanism and start a general debate on the human rights situation in Palestine and other occupied Arab territories. Consideration of Outcome of Universal Periodic Review of Jamaica Presentation WAYNE McCOOK, Permanent Representative of Jamaica to the United Nations Office at Geneva, stated that Jamaica had accepted 92 recommendations in whole and two recommendations in part, whereas the Government considered 68 recommendations as having already been implemented or as being in the process of implementation. The Government had a longstanding policy that reflected its serious commitment to its obligations to implement international treaties. As such the Government did not bind itself and its citizens to any treaty unless it was certain that the domestic framework would stand up to national scrutiny. That fundamental approach had informed the Government's response to recommendations relating to accession to various treaties. Jamaica accepted the recommendations to establish a national human rights institution, to conduct human rights trainings and sensitization of the police force and the judiciary, and to provide human rights education for all citizens through various mechanisms, including school curricula. It also accepted to create an online system to track international recommendations. Jamaica was not opposed to accommodating visits of Special Rapporteurs. However, they were and would continue to be considered on a case-by-case basis. In the case of agreed visits, it was crucial to give adequate notice to the Government through established diplomatic channels. Jamaica had accepted the majority of recommendations on combatting discrimination on any grounds and in all spheres of life and to further the protection of the rights of vulnerable persons, including women, children, persons with disabilities and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons. A gender equality framework was currently in place for the Government's policies, programmes and plans. Jamaica continued to take steps to end prejudice and stigmatization affecting all Jamaicans, including lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons. It did not accept any recommendations which sought to characterize the attitudes of Jamaican society generally as “homophobic”. The Government was grappling with the phenomenon of “street children” and trafficking in persons. As for the decriminalization of abortion, in Jamaica abortion was permissible on certain medical grounds. As it had already accepted several of the recommendations regarding the Independent Commission of Investigation, which investigated alleged excessive use of force, the Government regarded as redundant the recommendation to amend the Coroner's Act to strengthen the Commission's powers. As for the recommendation to end corporal punishment, the Government had abolished its use in early childhood institutions, children's homes and other arranged alternate living spaces, such as foster care. Discussion Sierra Leone applauded steps taken by Jamaica to further guarantee fundamental freedoms and the reform of the justice system despite the challenges in the financial situation. Sierra Leone recognized that the implementation of recommendations was often undermined by the scarcity of resources and urged Jamaica to continue to seek assistance to more comprehensively address adaptation measures to address the effects of climate change. Venezuela underscored significant progress in the area of gender equality and the protection of the rights of persons with disabilities in Jamaica and encouraged it to continue to strengthen its social policies for the benefit of the most vulnerable groups of the population. Bahamas noted with satisfaction that Jamaica had embarked on the path of national transformation through its national development plan 2009-2030, and the continuous efforts to promote and protect the rights of the most vulnerable groups in the society, such as women, children and persons with disabilities. Benin congratulated Jamaica for ratifying the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the measures to reduce unemployment, lower inflation and increase foreign investment. Benin urged Jamaica to continue to eradicate poverty, expand access to safe drinking water, and increase access to education in rural areas. Botswana applauded Jamaica for taking measures to protect the most vulnerable, including through the adoption of the social protection strategy. Botswana welcomed the adoption of the Optional Protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography, and the amendment of the Trafficking in Persons Act, and said that their implementation would be crucial in the protection of the rights of children. China commended Jamaica's comprehensive and positive feedback to the Universal Periodic Review and its acceptance of most of the recommendations. China appreciated Jamaica's acceptance of its recommendations to eradicate poverty, promote economic, social and cultural rights and improve education, especially access to education for poor children and other vulnerable groups. Cuba underscored Jamaica's important advancement of human rights, in particular the implementation of policies to improve the rights of children and persons with disabilities, as well as to improve the health-care system. Cuba appreciated that its recommendations on persons with disabilities and the fight against HIV had been accepted by Jamaica. Philippines expressed appreciation for Jamaica's acceptance of Philippine's recommendation to continue its advocacy for keeping global warming levels above the pre-industrial age. It also voiced appreciation of its increased efforts to establish a national human rights institution in line with the Paris Principles. Rwanda recognized Jamaica's measures to combat trafficking in persons and the adoption of the National Plan of Action to combat trafficking in persons. It also commended legislative measures aimed at combatting discrimination of women. International Lesbian and Gay Association, in a joint statement, commended Jamaica's efforts to implement recommendations to improve the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons. However, it urged the Government to conduct a legal audit on people living with HIV and to provide them with better access to social services. Amnesty International welcomed the acceptance by Jamaica to establish a national human rights institution, and noted concerns over lack of cooperation from the police with investigations into the killings of civilians by security forces in 2010. It noted with concern that Jamaica lacked a legal framework to prevent discrimination and violence on the grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity. Rencontre Africaine pour la défense des droits de l'homme welcomed Jamaica's cooperation with United Nations human rights mechanisms and its enrolment in initiatives targeting persons of African descent. It remained concerned about violence and discrimination against women and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons. The President said that out of 168 recommendations received, Jamaica accepted 92, while 74 were noted. Additional clarifications had been given on two recommendations regarding which parts of these had been accepted and noted. Concluding Remarks WAYNE McCOOK, Permanent Representative of Jamaica to the United Nations Office at Geneva, said the Universal Periodic Review was a vital mechanism that contributed to the promotion and protection of human rights. He insisted that there was no impunity for excessive use of force by law enforcement officials. The Council then adopted the outcome of the Universal Periodic Review of Jamaica. Consideration of Outcome of Universal Periodic Review of Libya Presentation SALWA ELDAGHILI, Chargé d'Affaires at the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations Office at Geneva, said that Libya highly appreciated the pivotal role of the Universal Periodic Review in the improvement of the human rights situation in countries and was keen to positively engage with this mechanism. States had made 202 recommendations to Libya, most of which had been accepted. Libya was undergoing a very difficult transitional phase and it faced formidable political, economic and security challenges. Ms. Eldaghili highlighted the crucial need for the support of the international community and the pivotal role of the United Nations in the promotion and protection of human rights, putting an end to human rights violations and abuses, ensuring accountability, and ending impunity. Dealing with a variety of security challenges, including increasing terrorism by Daesh, smuggling, and trafficking in persons linked with illegal migration, exceeded the capacity of any state and Libya called for regional and international cooperation in this regard. Libya reaffirmed its commitment to implementing all accepted recommendations, and called for a partnership with international organizations and civil society to promote the rule of law in the country. Discussion Estonia appreciated Libya's participation in the Universal Periodic Review, but expressed concern about the continuing violence between several armed groups in Libya, resulting in hundreds of deaths and mass displacement. The protracted conflict, lack of border controls and fragile rule of law had allowed a continued trafficking of humans, drugs and weapons across Libya's borders. Ethiopia commended Libya's continued engagement with the Council's human rights mechanisms. It noted the challenges that Libya had encountered to ensure peace and security and the impediments confronted in efforts to implement the accepted recommendations. It recommended that Libya redouble its efforts to restore peace and security. Iraq appreciated that Libya had accepted most of the recommendations made to it during the Universal Periodic Review. It commended Libya for the adoption of policies to guarantee human rights and called on the international community to help Libya meet its human rights obligations in light of the challenging situation in the country. Ireland noted that the recent progress in United Nations-led peace talks was encouraging. However, the human rights situation in Libya remained of serious concern, in particular reports of torture and ill treatment in detention centres, which had to be investigated and addressed. Italy welcomed the acceptance of the recommendations by Libya, including the one by Italy to investigate all allegations of torture and enforced disappearances and bring those responsible to justice. Italy supported the desire of the Libyan people to take forward the democratic transition and restart the reconstruction of the country. Kuwait commended the achievements in the field of human rights despite the current crisis, and said that the acceptance of the recommendations was evidence of the genuine desire of Libya to protect its people. Latvia was alarmed about recent reports of serious human rights violations, including arbitrary detention, torture and enforced disappearances, and shared concern about near absolute impunity for those violations. Libya should investigate all allegations of torture, ensure redress to victims, and allow Special Procedures to visit the country. Morocco commended the positive engagement of Libya with the Universal Periodic Review and the acceptance of the huge number of recommendations it had received. Morocco appreciated the commitment of Libya to honour its human rights obligations despite the challenges of transition in political and security fields. Libya was in a dire need of assistance to address those challenges and to build a state of law. Sierra Leone noted with concern the challenges which Libya continued to face, in particular the humanitarian situation which had led to the displacement of thousands and the alarming expansion of terrorist groups in the region. Sierra Leone recognized the urgent need to rebuild State institutions which had been ravaged by the political upheaval of recent years. Rwanda appreciated the continued engagement of Libya with the Council's mechanisms. It encouraged Libya to ensure adequate human rights protection for the migrant populations residing or transiting through its territory, as well as to establish policies aimed at increasing women's participation in decision-making. Palestine valued the efforts made by Libya in the promotion of human rights through the development of a national human rights mechanism, despite the challenges it was experiencing. Sudan extended thanks to Libya for the information it supplied and valued its efforts in the implementation of human rights for all citizens. It expressed hope that human rights education would be included in school curricula. Togo commended Libya for its full commitment to the Universal Periodic Review process. Despite the challenging situation on the ground, Libya had made progress and had accepted most of the recommendations made. It invited the international community to assist Libya in implementing those recommendations. United Kingdom welcomed Libya's constructive engagement with the Universal Periodic Review and acknowledged the challenges and limitations it faced in implementing recommendations. It noted with concern that Libya had limited capacity in investigating human rights violations and bringing perpetrators to justice. Venezuela recalled that up to 2011, Libya had had the highest per capita gross domestic product and life expectancy in the region, and denounced the grave consequences of the military intervention. Venezuela urged all parties to take steps towards peace and said that international law offered solutions to the escalation of violence. Algeria congratulated Libya for the achievements made in the field of human rights and despite the distress the acceptance of many recommendations, including the ones made by Algeria to reach a sustainable solution to the crisis and include human rights education in the curriculum. Angola acknowledged the difficulties facing Libya and expressed appreciation for the assistance to vulnerable groups, and the establishment of the National Council for Civil Liberties and Human Rights. United Nations Watch called attention to sexual violence which was taking place with complete impunity and said that no actions had been taken to address it. Women's rights were denied to Libyan women on a daily basis and the religious legal opinions issued by the Grand Mufti had been a major blow to the full enjoyment of women's rights. Article 19 - International Centre Against Censorship, welcomed the acceptance of all 14 recommendations related to freedom of expression, association or assembly, in particular to bring to justice perpetrators of assassination of journalists and human rights defenders. Libya must ensure independent, speedy and effective investigations in response to threats and attacks, and establish protocols to collect and safeguard evidence and protect witnesses and lawyers. Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies, in a joint statement with World Organisation Against Torture, called on the Libyan authorities to adopt a four-year national action plan to ensure the implementation of its Universal Periodic Review recommendations, and to ensure consultation and cooperation with all stakeholders, including civil society. Arab Commission for Human Rights praised Libya for presenting its Universal Periodic Review report and urged the State to fully implement the recommendations. It was concerned about the reservation placed by the Government on signing the Rome Agreement of the International Criminal Court and expressed concern over the situation on the ground in Libya. It urged all parties to reach a political solution to the conflict. Amnesty International acknowledged the huge challenges faced by the Libyan Government in upholding human rights. However, it remained deeply alarmed at the scale and gravity of abuses perpetrated in the context of armed conflicts and the fight against terrorism, and the lack of accountability for those and past abuses. World Organisation against Torture, in a joint statement, warned about the violence, harassment and the breakdown of the State in Libya; violations committed against human rights defenders was a daily occurrence. In that context the respect for human rights defenders was vital and should be a baseline consensus for any successful agreement between parties to the conflict. Rencontre Africaine pour la défense des droits de l'homme said that Libya was a country where State-wide chaos reigned. Great importance was attached to the recent signing of a draft peace agreement in Skhirat. The situation of African migrant workers continued to be alarming. Those responsible for violations of humanitarian law should be held accountable. CIRID (Centre Independent de Recherches et d'Iniatives pour le Dialogue) stated that Libya's report was biased and full of falsifications. There was no mention of the war crimes committed in Benghazi, and the situation there was dire, with a shortage of medicine, medical equipment, food and water. All efforts should be made to ensure that there was no impunity. The President said Libya had accepted 161 out of 202 recommendations, and taken note of 31. Concluding Remarks SALWA ELDAGHILI, Chargé d'Affaires at the Permanent Mission of Libya to the United Nations Office at Geneva, expressed gratitude for the statements made today, most of which expressed full understanding for the current situation and the challenges Libya was facing. UNSMIL's contribution should enable the Libyan authorities to ensure the rule of law and protection of human rights. Thanks to the Universal Periodic Review, the Government would be more able to ensure that human rights were actively protected and promoted in practice. The Council then adopted the outcome of the Universal Periodic Review of Libya. General Debate on the Universal Periodic Review Luxembourg, speaking on behalf of the European Union, reiterated its full support for the Universal Periodic Review process and its contribution to the protection and promotion of human rights. It allowed various stakeholders to take part in the discussions, whereas mid-term reports allowed for a more transparent and regular dialogue. The European Union welcomed the active participation of civil society organizations and national human rights institutions. It remained concerned over the harassment, intimidation and repression against human rights defenders. Saudi Arabia, speaking on behalf of the Arab Group, welcomed the Universal Periodic Review process as a mechanism that was based on the values of accountability, transparency and credibility. It was an opportunity for States to review human rights situations, to promote the enjoyment of rights, and to overcome the imperfections in their national human rights contexts. The Universal Periodic Review should be carried out objectively and constructively, without any politicization. Brazil, speaking on behalf of the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries, appreciated the decision of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to organize in Brasilia in July 2015 a seminar on the Universal Periodic Review process, and on how to translate human rights commitments into national realities. To that end international cooperation played a key role. The exchanges during the seminar had reinforced the understanding that countries' experiences in the field of human rights were interconnected and mutually reinforcing. Algeria, speaking on behalf of the African Group, underlined the positive contribution of the Universal Periodic Review to human rights, and highlighted the importance of impartiality and non-selectivity. States under review should engage constructively and transparently in the process. The effectiveness and credibility of the mechanism relied on States making a limited number of clear and focused recommendations. Technical assistance and capacity building were also key to the effectiveness of the mechanism, and should be provided with the agreement of the concerned State. Morocco said the Universal Periodic Review should be a space for debate, and a tool for continued enhancement for human rights architecture. Morocco supported the practice of States submitting mid-term reports. The universality of the Universal Periodic Review was essential to its success. It was important to avoid politicization, and to limit the number of recommendations made by States to ensure better implementation. Sierra Leone said it had been actively engaged in the review of all countries, and had carefully made recommendations to address thematic causes of the challenges faced by States. Sierra Leone was also intending to continue the follow-up of its recommendations. The Universal Periodic Review provided a unique opportunity to improve human rights situations, and States should give due attention to this mechanism. Venezuela recognized the important role that the Universal Periodic Review was playing, as it provided for an excellent exchange of equals in the Council. The United Nations system had been a scene of politicized debates, not in line with the Charter. Venezuela rejected impositions of mechanisms and procedures by some powers within the United Nations. The Universal Periodic Review, on the other hand, had shown the way ahead and steered clear of manipulations. Namibia welcomed the fact that the Universal Periodic Review process had thus far ensured a 100 per cent participation rate and all States were commended for their constructive engagement. Its non-politicized nature was evidently appealing to many States. Namibia welcomed and encouraged the participation of and input provided by civil society organizations in the process of promoting and protecting the human rights of its people. China said that the Universal Periodic Review mechanism provided an optimal platform for sharing information on human rights in a universal and equal manner. China was pleased to note that countries were ever more active in participating in and contributing to that process. The mechanism's role should be fully recognized and its non-politicization maintained. There was no “one-fit-for-all” approach for all countries; States should respect the context and the priorities of countries under review. Maldives stated that the Universal Periodic Review enabled dialogue between States and constructive feedback for the enhancement of human rights. It recognized the work carried out by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights to create awareness about the role that civil society could play in the Universal Periodic Review process. Maldives warned that the recommendations for developing countries with limited resources were often more challenging. Albania stated that the Universal Periodic Review was becoming not only a collective exercise but also an effective and useful mechanism accepted by all United Nations members. Albania thus supported and advocated the Universal Periodic Review mechanism as of the utmost importance to the promotion and protection of human rights as a basic feature of democracy. Albania also commended the role of civil society in the Universal Periodic Review process. India said that the principles of universality, equality and impartiality underpinned the Universal Periodic Review and its success depended on upholding those principles. Sufficient resources should continue to be afforded to the mechanism. India advocated the intergovernmental character of the Universal Periodic Review and remained committed to it. It hoped that the Universal Periodic Review would continue to foster genuine dialogue between States, noting that it should not be used as a platform for the imposition of certain thematic issues. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia said the Universal Periodic Review stood as a unique intergovernmental cooperative mechanism for the promotion and protection of human rights. It was important for the third cycle of the mechanism to focus on the implementation of accepted recommendations, rather than on making new recommendations. Limited, focused and action-oriented recommendations were better, and States were encouraged to submit mid-term reports. The Office of the High Commissioner should be asked to provide a set of good practices for the implementation of recommendations. Ghana said the spirit of the United Nations Charter was that no States should be protected by the principle of non-interference in case of the mass violation of the rights of its citizens. The Universal Periodic Review was in the same spirit. Ghana said independent national human rights institutions and civil society organizations should be encouraged to participate more in the Universal Periodic Review process, in order to ensure that the States' views were not the only ones to be taken into account. Luxembourg said its mid-term report had just been finalized and was now available, and explained that this was made in collaboration with civil society and that it contained not only information on Luxembourg's achievements in the field of human rights, but also identified priority areas where progress remained to be achieved. Iran believed that the Universal Periodic Review was a unique mechanism in the human rights machinery that gave an opportunity to all countries without exceptions to have their human rights examined by the Council and, at the same time, to monitor human rights situations across the globe. The process should remain universal, independent and impartial. The Universal Periodic Review was an area for capacity building and technical assistance of Member States upon their request. Grenada said that the Universal Periodic Review made provisions for the administration of technical assistance to help States in the implementation process. Grenada believed in the importance of the mid-term report as a tool to monitor and measure progress in the implementation of recommendations. Therefore, Grenada made a voluntary commitment to prepare a mid-term report in 2017. Solomon Islands informed that the Government had endorsed the establishment of a Universal Periodic Review National Working Committee in 2014. The Committee had undergone a capacity building training which had been held in October 2014 with support from international partners. Solomon Islands would be submitting its second cycle report the following month. Universal Periodic Review Info said that the Universal Periodic Review brought opportunities to Governments that wanted to improve their human rights situations. Participation in the process, however, could lead to arrest and intimidation of civil rights activists. Civil society should be able to speak publicly without any repercussions. States and the Council had the primary duty to address reprisals against civil society. Cameroon Youths and Students Forum for Peace stated that national institutions had to advise the authorities on issues of human rights violations. It reminded that Norway's Universal Periodic Review contained many recommendations to tackle the right to privacy and access to justice. However, recently a non-governmental organization was prevented from finding recourse to justice. The Government of Norway should therefore address the issue. Human Rights Law Centre said that Australia was reviewed under the Universal Periodic Review in 2011. Despite some positive steps, implementation of many recommendations was stalled and the human rights situation had deteriorated in many key areas. The Government maintained its policy of mandatory detention for all people arriving to Australia by boat. New laws allowed the Government to return migrants intercepted at sea. International Educational Development Inc.regretted that the Universal Periodic Review had failed to address pressing issues in a number of countries, including in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, where most speakers failed to raise the issue of the on-going persecution against the Hmong people. Canners International Permanent Committee said freedom of expression was essential for the development of a democracy, and noted that freedom of expression, freedom of information, and freedom of religion were respected in Jamaica. United Schools International noted progress made in Honduras towards strengthening democracy, protecting the rights and cultural heritage of indigenous peoples, combatting gender inequalities, and overcoming extreme poverty. Centre for Environmental and Management Studies said that Mongolia had become a booming economy, thanks to the exploitation of its mineral resources. Not only were the country's economic indicators impressive, but the poverty rate had significantly decreased and other social indicators were praiseworthy. The reduction in poverty was due to the growth of life stock incomes. Mongolia was a tolerant society, guaranteeing freedom of religion. International Association for Democracy in Africa said Maldives had been a successful development story over the previous three decades. With a population of 300,000, it was a middle income country with positive human development indicators. The healthcare delivery in Maldives was organized through a four-tier system. The Government was committed to improving the quality and accessibility of the health services.


whether justice or injustice as far as God lives truth shall be revealed one day
By: Nwonuvu Chukwuemeka