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A Brief History of Printing in Nigeria

By Abdul-Rasheed Afolabi

We can chart our future clearly and wisely only when we know the path which has led to the present - Adlai Stevenson

The Evolution of Printing in Nigeria

The 19th century marked the beginning of the evolution of printing in Nigeria. Precisely in 1846, two missionaries Hope Waddel, with the help of his assistant Samuel Edgerly, established the first printing press at Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria. The Hope Waddel Press, as the press was later named, was used for the mass production of religious tracts and booklets. The Missionary Rev. Henry Townsend raised the bar when he established another press in the Western part of the country in 1854. He also started a school of printing where he trained pupils at Abeokuta. Five years later, Townsend started Iwe Irohin, the first newspaper in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the Mission Printing Press established by Townsend folded up in 1867 due to the cultural and political crisis that erupted between the Egba people and the European settlers.1

Prior to the collapse of Townsend's printing press, what can be regarded as an evolving printing industry had already taken root. This evolution can be attributed to a number of factors. First, the proliferation of missionary activities in Nigeria resulted in the setting up of presses which served as a means of publicizing and propagating the different faiths. As a matter of fact, many of the missionaries came with their printing presses. Second, the evolving and flourishing newspaper industry at the time also stimulated the establishment of printing presses. Worthy of mention are the printing presses set up in 1862 by Robert Cambell, and the Caxton Printing Press established in 1875 by Richard Blaize. As records indicate, by the end of the 1880s not less than five printing presses had been established in Lagos.2 The third factor is the quest for high quality printing. This became the driving force behind the publishers' investment in efficient printing equipment. Thus, by 1910 modern and more efficient printing presses were established in Lagos. This made it possible for newspapers (the major markets for printing presses.) to avail themselves of a wide range of services.3

The Colonial Government's shaping of the Fledgling Printing Industry

Aside from the missionaries and the newspaper publishers, another vital influence on the fledging printing industry in Nigeria at the early period was the colonial government. The first Government Printing House was established at Broad Street, Lagos in 1914. It provided stationery materials to the Government. During the colonial era, four Government Press Offices were established at Enugu, Ibadan, Cameroon and Lagos. It had initial staff strength of less than two hundred. However, by 1933, the production capacity of the press had improved tremendously. Production later included Trade Journals, Letter of Credence, White Papers, Rules and Regulations, Treasury Books and Forms, etc. Consequent upon this, the department became a very important body in Government; hence, a printing regulation law (Printing Press Regulations Ordinance) to protect the Press was enacted in 1933.4

The Opening up of the Early Printing Industry in Nigeria

The participation of business people and organizations who saw the great potentials in Nigeria's emerging and burgeoning printing industry took the industry to great heights. A businessman by the name Adeshigbin inaugurated his Tika-Tore Press in 1910. This was followed by the establishment of the CMS Press in Lagos in 1913. Worthy of mention is Samuel Pearce who started Awoboh Press in 1920. Others that followed suit in 1923 included Ajibade's Hope Rising Press, Washington Osilaja's Ife Olu Press, P.C. Thomas' Ekabo Press and Babamuboni's Tanimola Press. All the above mentioned presses provided cheap and competitive printing services to newspaper publishers.5

A landmark in the history of printing in Nigeria was made with the inauguration of the Nigerian Printing and Publishing Company in 1925 to publish the Nigerian Daily Times. The company, with the availability of sufficient funds, was able to purchase a printing plant “sufficient to set up a printing house capable of publishing the Nigerian Daily Times and the African Messenger and local job work…”6 Thereafter, in September 1925, the company purchased a second-hand Demy Wharfadale Printing machine and accessories, a new guillotine, type accessories, paper and insurance. During this period, the Daily Times printery had no mechanical composing machine for type assembly, but then the dexterity of the compositors of this era remains a marvel as they could assemble eight to ten words a minute. The mechanical composing machine (Intertype) was eventually introduced in the company in 1939.7

Progressively, the printing business in Nigeria continued to grow due to its viability, which accounted for well over 30 print houses as at 1930. In 1948, a UK newspaper “Daily Mirror” successfully bought into the Nigerian Printing and Publishing Company, thus bringing forth the first rotary printing press imported into Nigeria from England. In addition, more linotypes and other necessary machinery were shipped in. This was a shot in the arm for the newspaper company as it signaled the beginning of immense technological development for the Daily Times printery and by consequence the budding printing industry in Nigeria at that point in time.8

The period 1948-1958 brought with it massive development in printing technology in Nigeria. This was the period the Daily Mirror Newspapers Limited of London successfully acquired shares in Daily Times newspapers. Mechanical composing machines, founding equipment and a one-unit Foster rotary Press were shipped in from the Daily Mirror in London to Lagos. The rotary printing machine made mass production possible and this gave Daily Times an edge over other printing presses.

For a very long time letterpress printing process held sway in the Nigerian printing Industry. By the 1970s, however, the print demands of Nigerians had exceeded what letterpress could deliver. This brought about the era of lithography and offset machines. From the late 70s to late 90s, printing companies gradually bade farewell to letterpress and embraced offset machines. Rather than use metal types, printing could be done using photosensitive plates. Cut and paste graphic artists had a field day. Production was faster. Printed information could reach the populace faster. Information was flowing, shaping the thoughts, the outlook and perceptions of Nigerians.

The Digitalization of Print in Nigeria

The late 1980 and the early 1990s featured the era of computers with various types of hi-tech printing equipment emerging on the printing industry landscape. Available records indicate that Task Systems in 1987, pioneered desktop publishing and computer graphics in Nigeria with Apple Computers.9 Today, the printing industry is hugely driven by computer technology, resulting in better print quality, faster production and higher profit for print investors. Technology has served print production in various ways. Computers have made page layout and printing faster and more accurate, helping to control production cost and give better print quality. Easy-to-use, and inexpensive computer hardwares and softwares can now be combined for desktop publishing, small - scale print design, layout and production.

Afolabi (2008) in his analysis of the effect of technology on the print media industry in Nigeria notes that technological changes in the industry have been spurred by print buyers' demand for high quality colour reproduction, shorter print runs and shrinking production cycle times.10 In addition to these factors, there also comes to play printers' search for ways to decrease production cost, increase efficiency and enhance customer satisfaction. In essence, it can be said that the Nigerian printing industry, in tune with global practice, is not behind in adopting new technologies with a view to attaining high levels of competitiveness.

Colour separation started in Nigeria with the use of analogue separation. Awoga (n.d) records that Chronograph Limited located then around Tafawa Balewa Square in Lagos started experimenting with commercial colour separation around 1969-1970. Another name associated with pioneering colour separation in Nigeria in the late sixties is Academy Press in Lagos.11 Digital colour separation actually commenced in Nigeria during the 1990's when print investors saw the need and viability of colour separation in the print production process. By mid 1990's a number of colour separation outfits such as Vicoda Repro, Lithotec, Transcan, Hywill Graphics, MacGrafix, Clear impression etc were on ground to provide the much-expected digital colour separation needs for the printing industry.12

Computer to plate system completely phase out the need for films. In this technology, the image created in a Desktop Publishing (DTP) application is output directly to a printing plate. Kipphan (2001) notes that since several intermediate film-handling stages in the production of the printing plates are dispensed with, it has become easier to meet the quality requirements of print jobs.13 Punch Newspapers made the pioneer effort of introducing the use of CTP (computer-to-plate) in newspaper production in Nigeria in 2003. Little wonder then that the newspaper ranks high in terms of revenue from print advertisement. The print output of the newspaper is superlatively high and in the words of Azubuike Ishiekwene “the introduction of the use of CTP (computer-to-plate) and the use of digital cameras by reporters has helped to improve speed, quality and efficiency,"14

Direct Image (DI) technology, the technology that prints directly from the computer to the printing press, was introduced in Nigeria in 2001. Planet press in Lagos pioneered the cutting edge technology. Prior to this, high quality printing was done abroad. Since the emergence of DI in 2001, such high quality printing is now done in Nigeria. At present, there are several DI centers dotting the landscape of Nigeria.

The Rise of the Digital press in Nigeria

A digital press does not use plates or static image carriers, so each printed piece can be completely different from the last.15 The authors of the book Designer's Prepress Companion, Berlin, Kim and Talcott (2002) explain that digital printing is an integral process for both on-demand and variable-data printing. They explain that “with digital printing, each impression can be different because it does not use image plates or static image carriers; the image is created on the images carrier for each impression”.16 This feature of the digital press makes it a good tool for personalization of print communication products. In a similar vein, Clem J. and Link P. (2005) explain that since the printed product created by the digital press requires less setup for production than traditional printing methods, it is typically more economical (less cost per impression) for use in short-run printing situations”17. However, digital printing may not be the most economic solution to jobs of large volumes.

The saying “technology drives business and business drives technology” holds true with the development of the digital press in the print communications industry. The need for personalization, which is the hallmark of direct-mail advertising, provides an impetus for the deployment of digital presses. Direct-mails like sales letters, brochures, catalogs etc are efficient, effective and economical media for sales and business promotion. These print products can be personalized for each recipient since each can contain different names, addresses, colours, or any other information that is programmed from the database.

The increasing growth of the direct marketing industry in Nigeria has provided a market for digital presses which office equipment manufacturers like Xerox, OKI print solutions, Konika Minolta, Hewlett Packard, etc are tapping into. There is no doubt that the further growth of the direct marketing industry will bring about a corresponding increase market for digital presses. Aside the need for personalization, the increasing demand for short run jobs presents more markets for manufacturers and marketers of digital presses.

Conclusion and Recommendations

From the early period in 1846 to the present, printing in Nigeria has developed appreciably well in response to various technological developments and changing market needs. Nonetheless, the printing industry is yet to reach the promise land. To move the industry a notch higher than the present level, the following are suggested:



A Change of Business Model: the traditional printing companies have to reassess their product lines and continually ask themselves pertinent questions: What new computer-based product will sell in today's market? How much should be invested? Who are the audiences and how can they be reached? The answers to these questions will determine the winners and losers in the new information environment. Specifically, Nigerian printers must start to view and position themselves as print communication providers rather than print commodity manufacturers. In other words, Nigerian printers must continuously redefine their businesses in order to prosper in the future. In very practical terms, it means print media operators must be more innovative and take a broader view of their business.

Adequate Funding: Access to loans for investments by printers should be facilitated by the government through financial agencies.

Training and Re-training: constant updating of knowledge and skills is vital. The Chartered Institute of Professional Printers in Nigeria (CIPPON) has a huge role to play in putting in place training programs for her members. The training of printers is a crucial role that should not be left to educational institutions and print organizations. Beside, there is an urgent need for the incorporation of Printing Technology into the programme offerings of Universities of Technology in Nigeria. These institutions will thus be able to provide the much-needed high-level managerial hands for the print media industry.

On a final note, a high income industry like the printing industry should not be left to haphazard development; the task of taking Nigeria's printing industry to a world class level is a duty for all.

Notes

1. Daramola, Ifedayo. (2006). History and development of mass media in Nigeria. Lagos: Rothan Press Ltd. P.11.

2. Ibid, p. 11

3. Echeruo, M (1976). History of the Nigerian press. In The Story of the Daily Times 1926-1976. Lagos: Daily Times of Nigeria Ltd. p.7.

4. Federal Government Press of Nigeria records.

5. Echeruo, p. 7- 8

6. The Story of the Daily Times 1926-1976. Lagos: Daily Times of Nigeria Ltd. p.13

7. Ibid, p. 34

8. Ibid, p.35

9. Nigeria Communications Week, January 11, 2010.

10. Afolabi, A. (2008). ICT: Driving the print media industry in Nigeria. Technology Times.

11. Awoga, A. (n.d). Practical Computer and Digital Colour Separation. Lagos: Wal-Lab Publishing Company, p. 1-2

12. Printers Digest, March 2005

13. Kipphan, H. (2001). Handbook of print media: Technologies and production methods. Berlin: Springer. P. 593.

14. (www.afrol.com)

15. Digital printing; NAPL, p. 9.

16. Berlin, J., Kim C, and Talcott, J. (2004) Designer's Prepress Companion. New Jersey: National Association for printing Leadership p. 166

17. Clem J. and Link P. (2005) Prepress for Digital printing: An Introduction to prepress methods for the digital age. United States: Xerox Corporation, p. viii

Afolabi teaches at the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology. He is the author of the book “Graphic Communication in Nigeria”

Your Comment
 
 
 

Peace Effiom | 5/25/2015 1:03:00 PM
Over the years, there have been various issues, affecting the Nigerian mass media in one way or the other. These isssues are issues relevant to the development, structure, political and economic functions of mass communication in Nigeria. The print media, was the first of all mass communication media to be established in NIgeria. Ulike the broadcast media, the print media from inception has undergone individual ownership. The 19th century marked the evolution of printing in Nigeria. The first printing press was established by two missionaries, Hope Waddel and Samuel Edgerly in 1846 in Calabar, called the Hope Waddel Printing Press. In 1854, another press in the Western part of the country was established by Rev. Henry Townsend. He also started a printing school in Abeokuta where pupils were trained. Rev. Townsend started Iwe Irohin, the first newspaper in Nigeria, which was published forthnightly at inception in Yoruba language, and was later published in both Yoruba language and English language. After this, many other newspaperss sprang up in many parts of the country. Notwithstanding, the print media had had issues affecting it, some to the extent of media houses and printing press being shut down. These issues may include cultural and political crises, interferance from the colonial government, financial problems, high cost of printing materials and many others. PEACE EFFIOM, DEPARTMENT OF MASS COMMUNICATION, CALEB UNIVERSITY, LAGOS.
IBEGBU CHIKA | 1/22/2016 6:46:00 PM
The first Nigerian newspaper Iwe Irohin Fun Awon Egba Ati Yoruba (meaning Newspaper for the Egba people and Yoruba) was established in Abeokuta by Reverend Townsend in December 3 1859.It was on the above date that the first edition hit the newsstand.The establishment of Iwe irohin and schools by townsend aided in no small way in raising the illiteracy level among the yorubas. Another missionary Reverend Hope Waddell, a missionary of Presbyterian Church of Scotland Misssion who was operating from calabar also played an important part towards the growth and development of the Nigerian journalismor press.He established the "THE CALABAR OBSERVE" Which was the first newspaper east of the Niger. He later set up two vernacular newspaper UNWAMA EFIK in 1885 and OBUPONG EFIK in 1886. Both vernacular newspaper went into abeyance shortly beacause the people preferred English newspapers.Some nationalists who were inspired by the newspapers like Beele Blaize a decendant from freed slaves migrated to lagos where hr set up the lagos times and the Gold coast colony Advertiser on November 10, 1880. Lagos times according to Coker as quoted in Akinfeleye (2003) was at forefront of the expression of the earliest national sentiments. Other newspaper that came on board were "LAGOS OBSERVER" by Mr J
IBEGBU CHIKA | 1/22/2016 7:10:00 PM
The first Nigerian newspaper Iwe Irohin Fun Awon Egba Ati Yoruba (meaning Newspaper for the Egba people and Yoruba) was established in Abeokuta by Reverend Townsend in December 3 1859.It was on the above date that the first edition hit the newsstand. The establishment of Iwe irohin and schools by Townsend aided in no small way in raising the illiteracy level among the Yoruba’s. Another missionary Reverend Hope Waddell, a missionary of Presbyterian Church of Scotland Mission who was operating from Calabar also played an important part towards the growth and development of the Nigerian journalism or press. He established the "THE CALABAR OBSERVE" Which was the first newspaper east of the Niger. He later set up two vernacular newspaper UNWAMA EFIK in 1885 and OBUPONG EFIK in 1886. Both vernacular newspapers went into abeyance shortly because the people preferred English newspapers. Some nationalists who were inspired by the newspapers like Beele Blaize a descendant from freed slaves migrated to Lagos where hr set up the Lagos times and the Gold coast colony Advertiser on November 10, 1880. Lagos times according to Coker as quoted in Akinfeleye (2003) were at forefront of the expression of the earliest national sentiments. Other newspaper that came on board were "LAGOS OBSERVER" by Mr J Bagan Benjamin in 1882, the Eagle and Lagos critic in 1887 by Mr .Owen Macaulay. Most of the aforementioned newspapers had three things in common and they are as follows: They were established by descendants of freed slaves, Lagos was their operational base, They were expressing strong sentiment against colonialism. IBEGBU CHIKA OLUWASEUN. MASS COMMUNICATION. CALEB UNIVERSITY LAGOS.
Ehigie AbiesCU,Lagos | 6/4/2016 1:10:00 AM
The 19th century marked the evolution of printing in Nigeria. The first printing press was established by two missionaries, Hope Waddel and Samuel Edgerly in 1846 in Calabar, called the Hope Waddel Printing Press. In 1854, another press in the Western part of the country was established by Rev. Henry Townsend. He also started a printing school in Abeokuta where pupils were trained. Rev. Townsend started Iwe Irohin, the first newspaper in Nigeria, which was published forthnightly at inception in Yoruba language, and was later published in both Yoruba language and English language. After this, many other newspaperss sprang up in many parts of the country. Notwithstanding, the print media had had issues affecting it, some to the extent of media houses and printing press being shut down. These issues may include cultural and political crises, interferance from the colonial government, financial problems, high cost of printing materials and many others.
AJAYI OLUWAGBEMIGA I | 12/20/2016 4:22:00 PM
According to history of the Nigerian mass media we can trace to the 19th century precisely in 1846 in Calabar by some missionaries, Hope Waddel and Samuel Edgerly. it was in 1854 that Rev Henry Townsend established and inagurated a printing press and in 1859 it started publishing it publication called IWE IROYIN FUN ARA AWON EGBA ATI YORUBA, it became bilingual in 1866 and folded up in 1867 due to cultural, political and economic crisis. Progressively, the printing business in Nigeria continued to grow due to its viability, which accounted for well over 30 print houses as at 1930. In 1948, a UK newspaper “Daily Mirror” successfully bought into the Nigerian Printing and Publishing Company, thus bringing forth the first rotary printing press imported into Nigeria from England. In addition, more linotypes and other necessary machinery were shipped in. This was a shot in the arm for the newspaper company as it signaled the beginning of immense technological development for the Daily Times printery and by consequence the budding printing industry in Nigeria at that point in time. As new technology begin to take charge A digital press does not use plates or static image carriers, so each printed piece can be completely different from the last.15 The authors of the book Designer's Prepress Companion, Berlin, Kim and Talcott (2002) explain that digital printing is an integral process for both on-demand and variable-data printing. Print Media will still rock the wave of the media it only needs to be upgraded at interval.
king adeyemi | 12/29/2016 4:08:00 PM
Nigerian mass media started in the 19th century 1846, two missionaries Hope Waddel, with his assistant Samuel Edgerly, established the first printing press at Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria, it was named The Hope Waddel Press, was used for the mass production of religious tracts and booklets. The Missionary Rev. Henry Townsend raised the bar when he established the first newspaper in nigeria at 1854 called iweiroyin fun ara egba ati awon yoruba (meaning newspaper for the reading pleasure of ebga people and yoruba community) Rev. Henry Townsend established his own persona printing press and inaugurated a printing school..iwe iroyin became bi-lingual 1866 when the english edition was added to it ,it served as a forerunner for yoruba bible in 1864 by Ajayi Crowder.iweiroyin folded up as a result of cultural and political crises between the European settlers and the egba people . Now digital printing begin in the late 1980 and the early 1990s featured the era of computers with various types of hi-tech printing equipment emerging on the printing industry landscape. Available records indicate that Task Systems in 1987, pioneered desktop publishing and computer graphics in Nigeria with Apple Computers.9 Today, the printing industry is hugely driven by computer technology, resulting in better print quality, faster production and higher profit for print investors. Technology has served print production in various ways. Computers have made page layout and printing faster and more accurate, helping to control production cost and give better print quality. Easy-to-use, and inexpensive computer hardwares and softwares can now be combined for desktop publishing, small - scale print design, layout and production.in conclusion Nigeria mass media has improved from printing with poor instrument to more complex technology .
Graceanna k. otobo | 12/31/2016 10:33:00 AM
The print media, was the first of all mass communication media to be established in Nigeria. These issues are relevant issues to the development, structure, political and economic functions of the mass media in Nigeria. The 19th Century marked the beginning of the evolution of printing in Nigeria. But two Missionaries Hope Waddel and Samuel Edgerly, both established the first printing press in 'CALABAR' South Eastern Nigeria. According to the Article, Hope Waddle’s Press was named and used for mass production of religious tracts and booklets. In 1854, another press in the western part of the country was established by Rev Henry Townsend, Townsend raised the bar when he established another press in the country in 1854. He also started a school of printing and where he trained pupils at Abeokuta. The first newspaper in Nigeria, Iwe Irohin, Fun ara ebga ati awon Yoruba (Meaning newspaper for the reading pleasure of the egba people and Yoruba Community). The newspaper was published Forth nightly at inception in Yoruba Language and was later published in two Languages that is 'English and Yoruba'. After the Iwe Irohin, many other newspapers came up in different parts of the country. Moreover, the Newspaper folder up in 1867 as result of cultural and political crisis between the European settlers and the people of Egba land. Mass Communication
GBEMI ADEOLA-AKONNI | 1/3/2017 1:47:00 PM
THE EVOLUTION OF PRINTING IN NIGERIA CAN BE DATED BACK TO THE 19TH CENTURY IN CALABAR. IN THE YEAR 1846 HOPE WADEL AND SAMUEL EDGERLY WHO HAPPENED TO BE MISSIONARIES ESTABLISHED A PRINTING PRESS. THE PRINT MEDIA IN NIGERIA HAS HAD TO PASS THROUGH ALOT OF ISSUES SUCH AS MEDIA HOUSES BEING SHUT DOWN, PRINT PRESS BEING CLOSED.IN 1854 REV. HENRY TOWNSEND ESTABLISHED ANOTHER PRESS IN THE WESTERN PART OF YORUBANIGERIA. THIS NEWS PAPER WAS WRITTEN IN
CHUKWUMA RUTH | 1/3/2017 3:59:00 PM
The beginning of the evolution of print media in Nigeria was marked in the 19th century. Precisely in 1846,Hope Waddel, with the help of his assistant Samuel Edgerly who were also missionaries, established the first printing press at Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria. Aside from the missionaries and the newspaper publishers, another vital influence on the fledging printing industry in Nigeria at the early period was the colonial government. According to the article, the first Government Printing House was established at Broad Street, Lagos in 1914. It provided stationery materials to the Government. The missionary Rev. Henry Townsend raised the bar when he established another press in the Western part of the country in 1854. He also started a school of printing where he trained pupils at Abeokuta. Five years later, Townsend started Iwe Irohin, the first newspaper in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the Mission Printing Press established by Townsend folded up in 1867 due to the cultural and political crisis that erupted between the Egba people and the European settlers. Mass communication.
Ifeoluwa Ajimotokan | 1/3/2017 5:55:00 PM
According to history of the Nigerian mass media we can trace to the 19th century precisely in 1846 in Calabar by some missionaries, Hope Waddel and Samuel Edgerly. it was in 1854 that Rev Henry Townsend established and inagurated a printing press and in 1859 it started publishing it publication called IWE IROYIN FUN ARA AWON EGBA ATI YORUBA, it became bilingual in 1866 and folded up in 1867 due to cultural, political and economic crisis. Progressively, the printing business in Nigeria continued to grow due to its viability, which accounted for well over 30 print houses as at 1930. In 1948, a UK newspaper “Daily Mirror” successfully bought into the Nigerian Printing and Publishing Company, thus bringing forth the first rotary printing press imported into Nigeria from England. In addition, more linotypes and other necessary machinery were shipped in. This was a shot in the arm for the newspaper company as it signaled the beginning of immense technological development for the Daily Times printery and by consequence the budding printing industry in Nigeria at that point in time. As new technology begin to take charge A digital press does not use plates or static image carriers, so each printed piece can be completely different from the last.15 The authors of the book Designer's Prepress Companion, Berlin, Kim and Talcott (2002) explain that digital printing is an integral process for both on-demand and variable-data printing. Print Media will still rock the wave of the media it only needs to be upgraded at interval.
Salifu Abigail O. | 1/5/2017 3:37:00 AM
The first Nigerian newspaper, Iwe Irohin Fun Awon Egba Ati Yoruba (meaning Newspaper for the Egba people and Yoruba) was established in Abeokuta by Reverend Townsend It's first edition was published was in December 3 1859. Though the Nigerian mass media started in the 19th century 1846, with the aid of two missionaries, Hope Waddell and his assistant Samuel Edgerly, a missionary of Presbyterian Church of Scotland Mission who was operating from Calabar also played an important part towards the growth and development of the Nigerian journalism or press. He established the "The Calabar Observer", it was the first newspaper east of Niger. They established the first printing press at Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria, it was named The Hope Waddell Press and was used for the mass production of religious tracts and booklets. He later set up two vernacular newspaper Unwama Efik in 1885 and Obupon Efik in 1886. However, both vernacular newspapers were suppressed quickly because the people preferred English newspapers. The establishment of Iwe irohin and schools by Townsend aided the decrement in the ever rising illiteracy level of the Yoruba’s. . Lagos times according to Coker as quoted in Akinfeleye 2003 started the earliest expression of national sentiments. The newspapers which later emerged were, "Lagos Observer" by Mr J Bagan Benjamin in 1882, the Eagle and Lagos critic in 1887 by Mr. Owen Macaulay. The beginning of revolutionary press which was flagged off by the Lagos times and Gold Coast Advertiser in November 10 1880, and other newspapers of the Era of the Revolutionary Press were established by journalists and newspaper men who had tasted the bitter pill of racial discrimination and segregation in Nigeria and were all critical of the British colonial administration for representative government and independence. Most of them had Lagos as their operational base. The production of newspapers has since upgraded compared the to the era of Missionary Press and the eraof Revolutionary Press Mass Communication 200L
Celina Ikoro | 1/5/2017 11:35:00 PM
The first newspaper published in Nigeria was done by Europeans. Printing in Nigeria began through Christian missionaries who wanted to spread the faith. Hope Waddle, with the help of Samuel Edgarly established the first printing press at Calabar. The first newspaper in Nigeria, Iwe Irohin, was established at Abeokuta in 1859 by Henry Townsend, and it ran from 1859-1867. Townsend later retired in 1876. Iwe Irohin was purely a Yoruba newspaper, until the English language was added to it in 1860. The second newspaper introduced in Nigeria was published at Lagos in 1862 by Robert Campbell and it was called Anglo-African. By the end of the 1880's, more than 5 printing presses had been established in Lagos.
LAWAL TENIOLA | 1/21/2017 4:59:00 PM
The Nigerian mass media started in the 19th century with the print media.in1846, two missionaries Hope Waddel, with the help of his assistant Samuel Edgerly, established the first printing press at Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria.The first Nigerian Newspaper, Iwe Irohin fun awon ara Egba ati Yoruba (Newspaper for the Egba and Yoruba people). it was established in Abeokuta by Rev Henry Townsend and was published in Dec 3 1859. The Missionary Rev. Henry Townsend raised the bar when he established another press in the Western part of the country in 1854. He also started a school of printing where he trained pupils at Abeokuta. Five years later, Townsend started Iwe Irohin, the first newspaper in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the Mission Printing Press established by Townsend folded up in 1867 due to the cultural and political crisis that erupted between the Egba people and the European settlers. the second newspaper set up in 1862 by Robert Cambell, and the Caxton Printing Press established in 1875 by Richard Blaize. other printing press and news papers came after these, but did not conquer the problems though they made progress. to overcome all this problems, their should be adequate funding, training of personnels, new technologies for printing. The printing Press would surely come out in flying colors if these things are put in place.
Ali Faith Osaluesse | 1/24/2017 7:46:00 AM
Since the first printing in Nigeria, which was done by missionaries to produce religious tracts and booklets, different printing presses began to spring up. The revolutionary press also began. The Lagos Times and Gold Coast Advertiser flagged off the beginning of revolutionary press in Nigeria. The period witnessed newspapers like the Lagos Times and Gold Coast Advertiser, the Lagos Observer, The Mirror, etc. A high income industry like the printing industry should not be left to haphazard development; the task of taking Nigerians printing industry to a world class level is a duty for all.
MASS COMMUNICATION, 200LEVEL
IFY 19/1/18 | 1/19/2018 3:02:00 PM
the first ever newspaper was published by reverend henry townsend which was iwe irohin , it appeared both in english and yoruba , the print media in nigeria in this century is gradually fallen because of the social media or online newspaper , lets take it back to iwe irohin townsend's purpose of the newspaper was not only for news but it was also to get the people to read more and also to embrace the anti slavery movement.the print media in nigeria should put more effort because even the elders aren't intrested in reading anymore because of everything they need is on thier mobile device. mass communication 200l
OGEDEGBE ESIHEGBEME | 1/23/2018 11:47:00 PM
The first Nigerian newspaper Iwe Irohin Fun Awon Egba Ati Yoruba (meaning Newspaper for the Egba people and Yoruba) was established in Abeokuta by Reverend Townsend in December 3 1859.It was on the above date that the first edition hit the newsstand.The establishment of Iwe Irohin and schools by Townsend aided in no small way in raising the illiteracy level among the Yorubas. The newspaper was published forthnightly at inception in Yoruba language, and was later published in both Yoruba language and English language. After this, many other newspaperss sprang up in many parts of the country. The beginning of revolutionary press which was flagged off by the Lagos times and Gold Coast Advertiser in November 10 1880, and other newspapers of the Era of the Revolutionary Press were established by journalists and newspaper men who had tasted the bitter pill of racial discrimination and segregation in Nigeria and were all critical of the British colonial administration for representative government and independence. Most of them had Lagos as their operational base. The production of newspapers has since upgraded compared the to the era of Missionary Press and the era of Revolutionary press.
Work hard to achieve your heart desire.
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