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Cultural Renaisance, a priority challenge for Africa in the 21st Century.

Source: Alh.Yahaya Ezeemoo Ndu
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A paper presented at the occasion of the Badagry Folk Festival at the Badagry Town Hall on Monday, the 2nd of August ,2010.

Permit me to begin by first of all commending His Excellency, President Abdul aye Wade of Senegal for the erection of the colossal African Renaissance Monument that was unveiled in Dakar , Senegal on April 3rd this year 2010, indeed that monument signals in clear terms that Africans are determined to make the 21st century the African renaissance century.

The monument was unveiled in front of 19 heads of state including President of Malawi and the African Union Bingu wa Mutharika, Jean Ping of the African Union Commission and the presidents of Benin, cape Verde, Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania and Zimbabwe, as well as representatives from North Korea, and Jesse Jackson and Musician Akon, both from the United States .

President Wade said there of the monument:
'It brings to life our common destiny. Africa has arrived in the 21st century standing tall and more ready than ever to take its destiny into its hands'

As President Bingu pointed out:
“This monument does not belong to Senegal . It belongs to the African people wherever we are”

On his own part, Reverend Jackson said:
'This renaissance statue is a powerful idea from a powerful mind. This is dedicated to the journey of our ancestors, enslaved but not slaves”

I must also commend our own former President, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo who cut a ribbon in the colors of the Senegalese flag. He said the statue was:

“A monument for black people all over the world”

The African Renaissance as we know is the concept that African people and nations overcome the current challenges confronting the continent and achieve cultural, scientific and economic renewal.

Among other things, the African renaissance is a philosophical and political movement to end violence, elitism, corruption and poverty that seem to plague the African continent and replace them with a more just and equitable order.

Africa has been strenuously striving to realize the avowed goal of integration to build sustainable peace and to overcome its fight against poverty and injustice. To be candid, it could be said that many appreciable achievements have been recorded in this direction, with the establishment of the AU organs such as the Pan African Parliament in 2004, AU Peace and Security Council, in December 2003, the Economic, Cultural and Social Council of the AU (ECOSOCC) in March 2005, the African Commission on Human and People's Right in 1987 and the African Court on Human and People's Rights in January 2005. But despite the progress achieved, Africa continues to face many socio economic challenges and conflicts which hamper progression towards the African renaissance. These challenges it has been authoritatively analyzed and concluded require the mobilization of all Africans and the principal promoters of the AU vision for a “peaceful, integrated, prosperous Africa led by its population and representing a dynamic force within the international arena”.

Clearly the future of the African continent depends on human-centered participatory and rights-based approaches to development that recognize the need to prioritize the promotion of cultural identity, shared values and creative geniuses as tools for social transformation and human development.

I agree totally with His Excellency the Executive Governor of Lagos State , Mr. Babatunde Raji Fashola when he says on the 11th of August 2008 at the Annual Badagry Cultural Festival:

“Culture is very critical to the healthy development of any society. It has been rightly defined as the totality of the way of life of a given people encompassing their religious beliefs, social institutions, political structures, moral values, intellectual exertions and historical myths, including their arts and festivals''

The African Union too is in agreement with the import of that statement as it can be described as a self evident.

On May 23rd 2010 in Ghana , the African Union launched the African Cultural Renaissance Campaign. At the event were Presidents Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal, John Atta Mills of Ghana , and Kenneth Kaunda---former Zambian President. Also at the event were African Commission leaders, such as the Deputy Chairperson Mr. Erastus Mwencha and Social Affairs Commission Advocate Bience Gawanas. The event was also witnessed by many politicians, diplomats, students and other guests. In all about 600 people attended the occasion.

As explained at the event, the aim of the campaign for African Cultural Renaissance “is to promote pan Africanism, cultural renewal and identity as forming part of the shared values in the continent.''

Listed as components of the campaign were:

- Promotion of African cultural values including African languages so that their potential is explored and used to the maximum effect in order to reinforce a sense of identity among Africans.

- Promotion of the ratification of the Charter of the African Cultural Renaissance to ensure its entry into force.

The charter itself was adopted in 2006 but up till the time of the event, only Mali has ratified it.

- Popularizing and promotion of the effective implementation of the Charter at all levels of society through various activities that will;

a. Ensure the ownership of the Charter by member States, cultural stakeholders, civil society organizations and the public at large.

b. Ensure the preservation of Africa's rich cultural practices whilst also campaigning against harmful traditional practices.

It is in pursuance of the quest for African continental integration that the African Union Commission has launched the 2 year campaign on the African cultural renaissance under the theme: PROMOTING TOGETHER THE AFRICAN CULTURAL RENAISSANCE.

Indeed, Africa is in serious need of a cultural renaissance. When one takes a critical look at the African society of today, this need grows even more imperative. The average African youth today appears to loath himself/herself and does anything and everything humanly possible to be someone else.

Take the women folk for instance, the average African lady would go to extra lengths to appear to be anything but African. Almost every street in every African township is dotted with so called Beauty saloons, where the women folk spend most of their time fixing false hair and nails, learning how to bleach their bodies and practice how to speak and sound un-African. Any one in doubt should take a sample of movies produced by Africans.

The African of today derides the traditions and cultures of his ancestors and struggles continually to embrace western ways of life, just as they struggle to take citizenships of western nations.

Even the time honored African culture of chastity and moral rectitude has been jettisoned while prostitution and promiscuity have become fashionable.

Respect for elders is at a steady decline all over Africa and generally Africans are behaving as people without culture, tradition, history or heritage.

Despite the proliferation of churches and mosques all over Africa, immorality, corruption and godless materialism have reached all time high and all who wish the continent well must be worried at this turn of events.

As far as indigenous African language goes, the African of today is no longer sure that his mother tongue is still valid or intelligible even in communicating with the almighty his creator. This is why a greater percentage of them when praying to God prefer to do so in a foreign tongue. In mostly the language of their erstwhile colonial masters, which is mostly English or French As if that is not enough, most schools in Africa met out punishments for pupils who speak in their local tongues and indigenous languages.


African cultures as we all know, suffered a great deal of discontinuity in its transmission to succeeding generations under colonial rule. After independence the civilian and military governments did not adopt long term policies on their cultures and this had gravely affected everything African and is also responsible for the sorry state of things in the continent as a whole.

Professor Leopold Senghor once observed:

“Cultural imperialism as we too often forget is the most dangerous form of colonialism. It obscures awareness. The lack of political will for economic transformation may in part be due to a state of mental and intellectual dependency''


''Power is the the ultimate determinant in human society,being basic to the relations within any group and between groups. It implies that ability to defend one's interest and if necessary to impose one's will by any means necessary''--Walter Rodney in his book''How Europe underdeveloped Africa.

Africans have been misled over the ages to see politics and governance as just one aspect of society which can be ignored essentially by a larger segment of the society and life goes on so to say. They have failed to realize that politics and governance are in fact and indeed like the heart of society itself. The condition of the heart determines the wellbeing of the rest of the body. Therefore Cultural Renaissance for Africa to make practical sense must begin with the processes of governance practiced in Africa today and seek to bring them in consonance with the cultural essences of Africans as a people.

We Africans as far as governance goes can be likened to slaves who had been shackled for a long time and who after their shackles had been removed still maintained the posture they had grown accustomed to during their long period of enslavement not realizing that their shackles had been removed.

The systems of governance operated throughout the length and breadth of black Africa are neo-colonial in all ramifications and I dare say that for as long as Africans govern themselves by these systems that were in the first instance formulated, contrived and perfected for the singular purpose of the subjugation and political emasculation of Africans………The quest for African renaissance will remain a mirage or at best an exercise in academic gymnastics.

In original African cultural governance systems, the governments were as integrally connected as a heart with the arteries and the body. The populace, the people, the masses owned and operated the government throughout ancient black Africa.

Conversely in today's Africa, and almost throughout the continent, governments being operated are alien to the governed, the masses and the so-called electorates.

This is practically the reasons for the political unrests that have consistently bedeviled Africa. No where is it clearer as in the Nigerian Legislature-especially the National Assembly, though the same essentially can be said of the two other arms of government: the Executive and the Judiciary.

1. The Legislature in Nigeria.
The main structural difference in the contraptions of military regimes in Nigeria from civilian regimes as they are practiced presently is the legislative arm of government which does not exist as a separate arm in military regimes. It has therefore been variously argued by political pundits that the legislature is the thermometer for measuring the democratic temperature of our polity.

The Nigerian National Assembly Members are all residing in Abuja the Federal Capital Territory. Infact, they were all residing in one section of one ward in Abuja in a form of exclusive estate known as 'Apo legislative quarters'

They are essentially isolated and divorced from their constituencies and issues of consultations with their constituencies are left completely at the whims and caprices of the so-called 'Distinguished and Honorable Members'

The level of their dislocation from the larger society is demonstrated by their rejection of all the core recommendations of the Justice Uwais Electoral Reform Committee whose report emanated from consultations with the generality of Nigerians.

Presently, this same group of people who are not in any practical way responsible or answerable to the larger people of Nigeria are in the process of altering fundamental provisions of the constitution of Nigeria. A classic case of enormous powers without any concomitant responsibility.

Cultural renaissance imperative demands that the members of the legislative arm of government be constitutionally and structurally required to reside in their various constituencies and that all major positions they make must be after verifiable and mandatory consultations with their constituencies.

The issue of the outrageous emoluments that the members of the National Assembly receive which runs into many millions of Naira monthly while the majority of the masses they claim to be representing are dying of hunger and suffering all manners of deprivations is a most embarrassing fixture of the current civilian dictatorship nick named democracy that Nigeria is presently practicing.

In African cultural settings people were their brothers' keepers and communality was always emphasized over individuality.

The ultra embarrassing aspect of this emolument issue of the National Assembly members is that the amounts involved are a seriously guarded secret while they claim to be servants of the people. Who ever heard of servants wages being a secret to the master?

2. The Executive in Nigeria
The Executive arm of Nigerian governments is essentially maintaining the colonial legacy of the nation as is the Legislative and the Judiciary.

The President and his Vice, as well as the Sate governors and their deputies are addressed always as 'Excellency'------meaning one who can do no wrong and one whose motives should not be questioned.

However, experience has shown that many of them to say the least are nothing but glorified thieves .Still we continue to address them as Excellencies.

These “Excellencies' then proceed to appoint ministers and commissioners after their own hearts whom we are bound to address as honorable.

African executive administrators must find ways of truly creating human-centered participatory and rights based approaches to development that practically recognizes the need to prioritize the promotion of cultural identity, shared values and creative geniuses as tools for social transformation and human development.

3. The Judiciary in Nigeria.
Fela Anikulapo Kuti of most blessed memory put it succinctly when he sang about what he called 'COLO – MENTALITY'. Let us briefly examine the origins of the wigs and gowns or robes that our Lawyers, Magistrates and Judges are known with and see how apt Fela's description is.

The history of the robe goes back to medieval times in England, when lawyers retained the tunic worn by men as a sign of learning until the middle of 14th century. Up until the Tudor period, the barrister's robe was closed at the front and brightly colored. By the start of the 16th century, the fashion was for a long, open gown of somber color, typically mulberry. By 1600, black had become the color of choice for members of the Inns of Court.

On the death of Charles II in 1685, the Bar entered a period of mourning and barristers wore a mourning gown. This was the origin of the robe worn by barristers today with sleeves tapered at the elbows with two buttons.

And as for the Wigs the story goes like this:

Charles II returned to England from France and brought with him the trend of the 'periwig' from Louis XIV's court. English society adopted the trend, as did the barristers in 1663.

The most fashion conscious members of society tried to outdo one another with larger and larger wigs, hence the term 'bigwig'. Certain Judges and senior councils today wear the long, full-bottomed wig—the spaniel look-on ceremonial occasions to indicate their position.

Called to the Bar
Originally court rooms were partitioned off or enclosed by two bars or rails; one separated the judge's bench from the rest of the room; the other segregated the area for lawyers engaged in trials from the space allocated to the public, and from those appearing before the court.

Advocates, or counsel, were called before the court, came to the 'bar', and were admitted into the sealed-off area of the court hence; the term 'called to the bar', or being given the privilege to appear before the court.

Sources of Nigerian Law.
A study of the sources of current Nigerian law as operated today reveals 4 (four) principal sources:

1. Nigerian Legislation.

2. English Law which consists of,
a. the received English law which was introduced into Nigerian law by Nigerian legislature, and consists of

i. The common law
ii, The doctrine of equity
iii. Statutes of general application in force in England on January 1900

iv. Statutes of subsidiary legislation on specific matters.

b. English law made before October!, 1960 (Nigerian Independence Day) and extending to Nigeria (and was introduced into Nigerian law by the English legislation, and must be repealed by the appropriate authority in Nigeria before it is no longer applicable in Nigeria, regardless of its applicability in England).

3. Customary Law

4. Judicial Precedents: the principle of law on which a judicial decision is based.

Essentially, the Nigerian legal system is based on English common law modified by Nigerian rulings, the Nigerian constitution and legislative enactments.

The mere fact that 50 years after Nigerian political independence the operational sources of Nigerian law are still what it is says it all.

In most African communities today , a poor man who steals a loaf of bread to feed his starving family is consigned to long jail sentence, whereas a high ranking government executive who misappropriates or embezzles billion of dollars of public funds usually goes unpunished, which is radically against the African culture of fairness and equity.

African peoples and nations must find ways of reconstructing their legal systems to bring them in consonance with common sense, equity good conscience and natural justice and above all to reflect the facts of their political independence.


“Battle for the Soul of Africa''
It is often said that one out of every four Africans is a Nigerian and that one out of every five Black people on earth is a Nigerian. That being so, it is clear that Nigeria has a major part to play in anything African.

Nigeria being the nation with the largest concentration of black people on earth, and blessed with the very abundant resources that God has blessed her with, there can be no gainsaying that Nigeria should be eminently qualified to lead the battle for the sole of Africa-which is the battle for African cultural renaissance. But before then

Charity begins at home.

Nigerian Peoples' Conference

Since the amalgamation of Nigeria in 1914, the people of Nigeria have never really had any meaningful and tangible inputs into the constitution making process of the country.

All previous constitutions have been imposed. The British imposed the 1960 constitution on us. We slammed the 1963 Republican constitution on ourselves without any impute by the ethnic nationalities that made up the country. The 1979 constitution was no different.

The presently operational 1999 constitution was the very worst in the sense that it remained a secret until made into law.

Cultural renaissance necessitates that the ethnic/constituent units of Nigeria must freely assemble in an orderly manner and fashion out a truly Nigerian peoples' constitution.

Incidentally a laudable attempt at this was made by the Chief Anthony Enahoro/Prof. Wole Soyinka/Late Beko Ransome Kuti led PRONACO but the yet inexplicable shortcoming of which is that the draft constitution emanating from that noble endeavor has remained a secret to the masses of Nigeria up till date.

As charity begins at home, Nigeria must first reclaim its sovereignty, its soul by first beginning the process of governing herself by laws freely agreed to by the components units of the nation, before she can begin to make meaningful pretensions towards leading the rest of Black and African world in the crusade for cultural renaissance.


No matter how powerful a gun may be or how awesome it may look, the trigger remains an essential part as the gun never fire until the trigger is pulled .Likewise a trailer or the biggest bulldozer for that matter may look majestic but remains immobile until kick started. The key that performs that function usually looks infinitesimal in comparism to the trailer or bulldozer.

I see the gun or trailer or bulldozer as I see our nation Nigeria; while I see the trigger or key as I see the African Renaissance Foundation----our very host to this important function

I for one have tried to follow the activities of this foundation from the distance as much as I can and I have no doubt whatsoever in my mind that the organization is not only on the right track but equal to the task. Be that as it may, I consider it as an obligation on my part to make 2 [two] suggestions as integral part of this lecture for the foundation to consider in its quest for the cultural renaissance of Africa. They are; an African Renaissance Theme Park Tourism Complex and the production and distribution of Cultural, Historical and Traditional African Animation films.

i. African Renaissance Theme Park Tourism Complex Badagry.

According to Mr. Ignatius Atigbi:

“the modern trend towards tourism development is the discovery of folklores, dancing, tradition, culture and art. On the continental basis, Africa which is still yet undiscovered and of which the world still has a superficial and at most times, distorted image stands to benefit from the development of this phenomenon. With legitimate pride in the incalculable riches of our continent, African nations are anxious to have their right share in this outstanding phenomenon-the growth of international tourism''

Naturally, Nigeria is being looked upon to play the necessary leadership role.

The 1st Nigerian International Tourism Expo was organized at the International Trade Fair Complex, Badagry Road in 1987. The Chairman of the organizing committee was the now late Matt Ebaboje Da'Silva who in his life time was popularly known as Mr. Tourism. I was at the event as I came there as one of those who were to represent the old Anambra state at the event. The 2nd Nigerian International Tourism Expo was organized in Kaduna in the following year 1988. The chairman of the organizing committee who is also now late was Mr. Ignatius Atigbi who was indeed the man who conceived the idea of the World Tourism Day which is yearly celebrated all over the world on the 27th of September. I was also present at the event and one thing that I was convinced of from both events was that Tourism, especially cultural tourism was not only an extremely lucrative business but one of the greatest instruments for cultural renaissance available to us Africans.

Tourism as we know it has become the noblest instrument of this century for achieving international understanding. It enables contacts among peoples from the most distant parts of the globe, people of various languages, races, creeds, political beliefs and social standings-tourism brings them together. It leads to personal contact in which people can understand attitudes and beliefs which were incomprehensible to them because they were different. It is the greatest relator of cultures.

Clearly, tourism is a most veritable instrument for cultural renaissance.

However, the most capital reason for the recommendation that follows is the Badagry as the African Renaissance Foundation has often emphasized is extremely well positioned to play a leadership role in this dimension.

Sometime in the past, I read of a major theme park tourism project planned for Badagry. I do not know the state of that project, neither am I privy to the overall conception. But one thing I do know is that Badagry uniquely if not ideally well placed to host a major African Cultural Renaissance Theme park Tourism Complex. A theme park tourism complex that will be a direct product of the cultural, historical and traditional realities of black Africans. A theme park that will capitalize on our collective areas of comparative advantages. A theme park that will tell our story---In short a theme park that will ultimately make sense.

The theme park that I pray for, for Badagry is one that will at once also serve naturally as a practical centre for Black and African Cultural Renaissance. A theme park that will fulfill the need and fill the void now existing in the global campaign for African renaissance. A theme park like no other on earth. A theme park that will attract visitors from all over the world because it offers features not available anywhere else. The theme park that was dreamt about at both the 1st and the 2nd Nigerian International Tourism Expos.

Such a theme park can generate a multiplier effect that will transform the whole of Badagry and its environs beyond anybody's wildest imaginations.

ii. African Cultural, Historical and Traditional Animation films.

Films have long been recognised by people of all parts of the globe as powerful instruments of mass education, sensitization and mobilization.Even the leaders of the guerrilla struggle were quick to perceive the artistic and educational supremacy of the film medium. In early 1959, soon after Fidel Castro became head of the new revolutionary government, he ranked cinema and television, in that order, as the most important forms of artistic expression. A decade later, the First National Congress on Education and Culture pointed to radio, television, the cinema, and the press as:

“Powerful instruments of ideological education, molders of the collective consciousness whose use and development must not be left to improvisation or spontaneity''

The cinema/film industry in Nigeria today is unquestionably LEFT TO IMPROVISATION OR/AND SPONTANEITY and the only moderating influence, one may add is MONEY MAKING POTENTIALITY.

Reading culture is disappearing fast allover the world and besides the main target audience for the crusade for African cultural renaissance should be the upcoming generation. The leaders of tomorrow so to say and we have to talk to them in the language they understand. Animation films.

Animation films that tell the story of we Africans. The stories of our heroes and heroines .Stories that tell of the contributions of blacks and Africans to human civilization.

Nations striving for greatness and distinction in today's world must recognize their heroes of both the past and present and hold them before their people as profound examples to be studied and emulated. Sadly most Nigerians know little or nothing about the history of their country or the African continent. Although we are urged to embrace a nationalistic fervor, the heroes whose achievements could inspire us to a patriotic love of our country and the ambition of struggle for the advancement of our people, are virtually unknown to most. Men such as Jaja of opobo, Oba Overanmwen, Sultan Attahiru and Nana Olumo, to name only a few ,who played leading roles in Nigerian resistance to the imposition of British rule, are blurred in obscurity. Britain or America could not have risen to such heights without their legendry heroes, their national inspirations. Each child in British and American class rooms is endowed with a rich heritage of national heroes as incentives to shape and stimulate his aspirations. Africa and Nigeria must also have such heroes worthy of emulation to stimulate the imaginations of our people and enliven their interest in the welfare of this country and of the continent. This essential ingredient of a great nation is currently missing.

We must make films that tell our children about the Egyptian empire of 1570-1070B.C., of the Kushite Empire 760-656 B.C., of the Carthaginian Empire, the Aksumite Empire, Kanem Empire, Ghana Empire, Fatimid Empire, Almoravid Caliphate, Almohad caliphate,Ethiopian Empire,Ayyubid Sultanate, Marinid Empire,Mali Empire, Mamluk Sultanate, Songhai Empire,Jolof Empire, Kingdom of Kongo, Bornu Empire, Oyo Empire, Benin Empire, Sennar Sultanate , Kaabu Empire, Kingdom of Luba,Lunda Empire,Aro Confederacy, Asante Union, Long Empire, Bamana Empire, Sokoto Caliphate, Massina Empire, the Wassoulou Empire e.t.c.

We must tell the stories of Fumo Liyongo of the Wagalla in Kenya, of Sundiata of Mali, of the warrior queen Amanirenas of Meroe, of Queen Nefertiti, of King Seti, King Taharqa, King Tuthmosis III, King Ramses II, King Menkaure, Chaka de Zulu, e.t.c.

Our leaders of tomorrow must be told about the great Queen Nzinga who organized an all woman army that fought off Portugal and kept them out of Angola for many years. She organized this army after the male soldiers numbers were diminished due to constant warring. The queen was fighting against slavery and oppression.

Two quotations from Nelson Mandela come to my mind at this point and I consider them appropriate for us all to bear in mind as the crusade for African cultural renaissance cannot be a tea party. The quotations are firstly;'

“There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires''

While the second says;

“the freedom struggle was not merely a question of making speeches, holding meetings,pasing resolutions, and sending deputations, but of meticulous organization, militant mass action, and above all, the willingness to suffer and sacrifice''.

I once read a piece on the internet were a writer was saying that so much had been written about African renaissance and was wondering when someone would actually do something about the much talked about African renaissance.

There is also that saying that says that “ philosophers have analyzed the world, what remains is to change it''

People say that there is no stopping an idea whose time has come.

It is impossible to conclude this lecture without commending the initiatives of the organizer of the Black Heritage Festivals that is celebrated here in Badagry. It is a very laudable undertaking. One notes that Black Heritage festivals are also organized at different parts of the world, but especially in the United States. One hears of the Tampa Bay Black heritage Festival, the Black Heritage Festival of Lake Charles, LA, the Savannah's Black Heritage Festival, the Sea Islands Black Heritage Festival and so on.

However, and with all due respect all the Black Heritage Festivals so far held have been scratching the surface and can be described as icing on the cake as they have not properly done justice to the enormous, even overwhelming contributions of Blacks to human civilization.

Those who have been celebrating Black Heritage Festivals outside the shores of Africa can be pardoned if they continue to depict their celebrations as they have been doing in the past, but we here not only in Africa's heartland but of the very giant of the continent must do much more.

It is our responsibility to showcase Black contributions in all aspects of human civilization without fear of contradictions. These contributions can be found in all areas of human development and scientific progressions.

For instance in Mathematics, Geometry, Writing, etc.

Mathematics: The very foundation of mathematical knowledge was first attested to in Africa. The oldest verifiable archeological find for mathematics is that of the Ishango Bone with an archeological date of between 18,000-20,000 B.C.. This is a fibula bone of a baboon and it was found in Ishango which is located between Uganda and Kongo at the edge of the Nile River.

Geometry: Ancient Ta-Meri, the very foundation of geometry has its origins in the Nile valley. One of the last of the Greek philosophers Proclus Diadechus, said “Thales, having first come to Egypt transferred this study (geometry) to Greece.

Writing: The earliest writing system is found in Africa. The earliest evidence of a systemized phonetic script is found in the Nile valley.

Calendar: The earliest calendar in the world was found in the same Nile valley and dates back to approximately 4,241 B.C. This is the 365 days a year calendar still used in the world today.

Medicine: African medicine was so revered by the Greeks that Imhotep, one of the greatest African physicians is included by the Greeks in their so-called Hippocratic Oath [which doctors still take today].

Metallurgy/Mining; the industrial revolution would not have been possible without the development of metal. Around 1,500-2,000 years ago, Africans living on the western shores of Lake Victoria, in Tanzania, had produced carbon steel that later gave life to the industrial revolution.

The Africans created pre-heated forced-draft furnace, a method that was more sophisticated than any developed in Europe until the mid 19th century.

I honestly believe that the right time has finally come for the practical campaign for cultural African renaissance to take root, germinate and flourish and I also believe that Badagry is the right place for this and that the African Renaissance Foundation shall be the midwife. I and my people can only pledge our willingness, Nay...Eagerness to contribute our quota in any way possible towards this era whose time has come.

Thank you all.

Alh.Yahaya Ezeemoo Ndu
Editor-in-chief and Publisher
National Chairman