National Insecurity: Socio-political Perspective on Islam and BokoHaram Insurgency

By Sherif Jimoh

Jama 'Atul Ahli Sunna Lidda'awati Wal Jihad, popularly known as Boko Haram is a social cluster group of people who are Muslims of diverse charisma and character with shared value and goal who are often referred to as brethren.

In this group are persons of remarkable skills or expertise {knowledge-based or otherwise} who dominate the upper echelon of the group and who serve as either advisers or commanders. As well, there is a cult of follower-ship who occupy the lower echelon and who have little or no skill nor expertise and who are mostly given orders to execute {upon training}. From the view point of this writing, the ideology of the group is rejuvenation of model socio-political cum economic system {practice} as pertains to the religion of Islam. Albeit the group exhibits condemn-able deviation and divergence in modality of it's propagation; there is no gainsaying in denying and doubting mission and vision of the group.

It is needless to mention that there is a popular growing sentiments of citizens' distrust and malcontent of democratic practices around the world; which is causing public social disturbances. However, it is pertinent to mention from the outset that the religion of Islam is a foremost religion which promotes and enjoins acquisition of knowledge without distinction. It indoctrinates this through the medium of it's scriptural Holy Book, otherwise known as The Qur'an. It declares "read in the name of thy Lord Who created" (Chapter 96 Verse 1). Furthermore, Islam does not specify or discriminate about potential sources of knowledge {western or non-western}. What it enjoins is that acquirable knowledge must be beneficial and useful for humanity. Thus, it frowns upon harmful {non-beneficial} knowledge. "And they learned what harmed them, and not benefited them..."(Chapter 2, Verse 102)

In deference to these two scriptural verses, the members of Jama 'Atul Ahli Sunnah Lidda'awati Wal Jihad would not have antagonized seeking for functional mundane knowledge {because the leaders are learned men}. As a result, the view point of this writing is the fundamental dis-satisfaction and revulsion of group stems from the bad practice of utilization of mundane knowledge. Thus, the popular "brand name" of the group Boko Haram reportedly coined by the Western media and which literally means "western education is forbidden" might be a misnomer or at least misleading because, as elucidated above, the group can not and does not condemn mundane education; but the bad administrative practice being deployed by mundane education.

Similarly, the emergence of Boko Haram is commonly attributed to a certain acclaimed spiritual founder named Muhammad Yusuf. He was a citizen of Yobe State and was born in 1970 and died in 2009. He was reputed as a "dedicated fundamentalist who was heavily influenced by Wahhabi thought". Wahhabism is an Islamic doctrine and religious movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd- Wahab. It has been variously described as "ultra-conservative"; "far-right"; "austere". Also, it has derogatory connotations such as "deviant sectarian movement"; "vile sect". It follows the theology of Shaykh ibn Taymiyyah and the Hanbali school of thought.

According to popular account, the sectarian ideological movement (later branded Boko Haram) started in 2002 as a "peaceful campaign during the first seven years of its existence". Such a campaign was limited to "public preaching" of tenets of Islamic monotheism according to Sunni sectarianism.

This was used largely to draw public audiences toward propagation and assimilation of spiritual guidance or faith. By Islamic religious standard, this practice and indoctrination of ideology is rightful and accordingly.

In numerous scriptural references (Holy Qur'an Capter 3, Verse 104-105), it is stated "let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong; they are the ones to attain felicity. Be not like those who are divided among themselves and fall into disputations after clear signs; for them is a dreadful penalty"

Similarly, the Nigerian Constitution guarantees freedom of association and indoctrination of faith. Even though, the Nigerian State is secular by practice; it nonetheless recognizes the fundamental rights of citizens.

Section 38, Sub-section 1 of the Nigerian Constitution which dwells on Right to Privacy ( of citizens) states "freedom (either alone or in community with others, and in public or in private) to manifest or propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching, practice, and observance". Similarly, Section 38, Sub-section 3 states "no religious community or denomination shall be prevented from providing religious instruction for pupils of that community or denomination in any place of education maintained wholly by that community or denomination".

In the same vein, Section 34 declares Respect for Dignity of Citizens and states under Sub-section 1 (a) "no person shall be subject to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment".

At this juncture, this writing would bring to the fore that agents and actors of the state who are supposed to maintain enforcement of the law (constitutional responsibility) are rather seen to be violators of the law.

It is in this same country of ours (Nigeria) at a point in time when there was a strident call to the government from some quarters (whose identities this writing cant verify) to checkmate religious propagating activities of the sect founded by Muhammad Yusuf. Rather than the government of the day (as at then) to meticulously appraise the viability of allegation of "menace to society" attributed to the sect; there was a clamp-down order imposed on the sect. Consequently, the Nigerian government launched an investigation into the sect's activities in 2009 "following intelligence reports" which led to the declaration of man-hunt on the acclaimed founder of the sect, Muhammad Yusuf.

This further led to deadly clashes between the sect and Nigerian security operatives which, according to a media report, claimed 700 lives. Furthermore, there was a media report (as at then) that the sect members used "fuel-laden motor-cycles and poison arrow" to confront operatives. Eventually, Muhammad Yusuf was apprehended by security operatives and he was murdered on July 30, 2009, in police custody as widely reported.

As a result, this writing would criticize the then government and it's security agents of badly managing affairs of a non-violent, unarmed sect to the extent of taming it to get out of imaginable proportion.

Constitutionally and legally , this writing would challenge controverts to point out where and when peaceful religious propagation constitutes menace to society? The Geneva Conventions of 1949 (Protocols I & II 1977, as amended) deals with Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts and Non-international Armed Conflicts. Common Article II of the Convention focuses on "declared wars" and states that they are to "accommodate situations that have all the characteristics of war without the existence of a formal declaration of war".

Article III clarifies between internationally recognized "armed conflict involving state and non-state actors" and "banditry". It states that "non-state groups need to have a certain level of organization, like a military command structure".

Furthermore, it states that non-active parties to the conflict such as hors de combat "shall be treated humanely". To this extent, it declares as "war crime" inhumane offenses committed not on the battleground such as "violence to life and person; the taking of hostage; outrage upon dignity; passing of sentences and carrying out executions without previously pronounced by the regularly constituted court". Violation of these rules of war implies "grave breaches" liable to a war crime.

By common media reports of human rights organizations such as the National Human Rights Commission and Transparency International; it is often alleged that the Nigerian government through the responsible agency (security operatives) are usually involved in these grave breaches.

In light of the above, the Nigerian government and agency might be guilty of commission of a crime on Boko Haram sect during incipience due to bad and disproportionate use of illegal force against an unarmed sect which has later turned ultra-violent. Similarly, this writing would like to educate readers that it would be a misnomer and misinformation to correlate current Boko Haram armed onslaught, as a harbinger of national insecurity, with other common daily banditry ravaging Nigeria as a country such as armed robbery, kidnapping, ritual killings, and others. This is because, acritical analysis of the philosophy of the latter primarily associates with prevailing daunting socio-economic realities of the country; while the former may be seen to see the socio-economic reality of Nigeria as a diversionary and opportunistic (secondary) motive.

Boko Haram insurgency, unequivocally, arose as a direct response to excessive use of force and extra judicial approach of the Nigerian government in containing a false alarm of "threat to society" raised by enemies of the state through incredible intelligence gathering.

According to Wikipedia, Boko Haram insurgency dates back to 2009 when "the jihadist group Boko Haram started an armed rebellion against the government of Nigeria". However, the earliest recorded insurgency account was in September 2010 when there was a prison break in Bauchi, freeing 700 captives. On May 29, 2011, coordinated bombings were recorded in Abuja purportedly by Boko Haram which, according to media reports, killed 15 and injured 55. On June 16, 2011, Boko Haram claimed to have masterminded the Abuja Police Headquarters bombing. In August 2011, the United Nations Building in Abuja was bombed. In December 2011, there was purported Boko Haram attack in Damaturu, killing 100 people. On 25 December 2011 (Christmas Day), Boko Haram attacked several Christian churches with bomb blasts and shootings.

By early May in 2012, according to media reports, the sect had already been responsible for 900 deaths. In July 2013, Boko Haram massacred 42 students in Yobe. On April 15, 2014, 276 females were abducted from a college in Chibok local government area in Borno State. This incident later caught international attention through the sustained daily march in Abuja of a group of protester tagged Bring Back Our Girls. On May 20, 2014, two bombs detonated in Jos, Plateau State killing 118 people and injuring many others. By late 2014, the sect had reigned violence and terror on defenseless citizens in the north-eastern part of the country by seizing territories in that region and hoisting their flag.

However, in the twilight of Nigerian 2015 general elections, there was a marked counter-offensive against Boko Haram. Precisely in January 2015, an international coalition of military formations involving countries of Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria launched a formidable reprisal attack against Boko Haram.

On February 4, 2015, it was reported the Chadian Army killed over 200 Boko Haram militants. Similarly, on February 17, 2015, the Nigerian Army regained previously lost grounds by recapturing territories such as Munguno in a coordinated air and ground assault. Furthermore, on March 27, 2015, Nigerian Army liberated Gwoza and Bama regarded as Boko Haram Headquarters. By April 2015, The Nigerian Army reportedly had re-captured most areas previously controlled by Boko Haram in north-eastern Nigeria, except for the Sambisa forest. This claim would be plausible because, for the 2015 Nigerian general elections to have taken place with a successful democratic transition, there must have been relative neutralization of Boko Haram insurgents and the prevention of their mayhem.

The incoming government of President Muhammad Buhari inaugurated on May 29, 2015, poised to build on the relative success of the out-gone regime,started by relocating the central command of the joint task force toMaiduguri (the epicenter of war). He introduced new reforms by change ofservice chiefs and enhancement of troop welfare to boost morale andadequate re-equipping of armed forces to combat Boko Haram insurgency.

This writing can not adduce veracity or otherwise of these reforms. But, the popular daily opinion sample of an average Nigerian about current state of national security leaves much to be desired. It would seem like this current regime has witnessed deteriorating national security since inception. At the beginning was the highly sensationalized farmer-herder clashes which claimed several uncountable lives and which is basically attributed to a particular ethnic of the nation (Fulani).

Then, there was also the renewed onslaught of Boko Haram insurgency which took another dimension worse than ever known. This is not to mention other types of banditry daily ravaging the country, especially kidnapping (for ransom) and armed robbery. However, the most impacting, negatively, on the country is the Boko Haram insurgency which has claimed tens of thousands of lives and displaced up to two million citizens of the northeastern part of Nigeria.

For re-iteration, Boko Haram in its ideological objective is not a crime committing terror organization but a religious propagating sect. However, from the view-point of this writing, its fundamental objective turned awry from two main incidents: firstly, the poor response approach of the Nigerian government in containing the activity of the group and secondly, the self-enforced leadership style of Abubakar Shekau who replaced founder of sect, Muhammad Yusuf, after his death in 2009. As afore-mentioned, the Nigerian government (as at then) took miscalculated steps in misdiagnosing the objective of the sect in its formative years and equally misapplying excessive force on members. By documented accounts, it was brought to the fore that the foremost discontent among surviving members of the sect upon security operatives raid on them was to avenge the death of their comrades.

Such was the resolution and determination of Abubakar Shekau upon his emergence as the sect's leader. His full name is Abubakar bin Muhammad al-Shekawi from Shekau town in the Yobe State of Nigeria. He is a Kanuri by tribe and a multi-linguist, speaking fluently English, Arabic, Hausa and Fulani.

A testimony to his literacy in the English language was his enrolment at the Borno College of Legal and Islamic Studies for advanced study in Islamic legal matters in the 1990s. It is reported he discontinued his study in the college for ideological reasons. He thereafter met with Muhammad Yusuf and became one of his henchmen. It is reported he served as his deputy in some instances. He is reputed as versed in Islamic monotheism and is popularly called Darul al Tawheed which literally translates Abode of Monotheism. Similarly, he is reported to possess a photographic memory.

According to insider sources, "he was respected as a leader in the beginning, by 2011 Shekau had begun to display signs of religious extremism". This was manifested in his reckless command for killing innocent civilians without due caution. He is notorious for mobilizing virulent and undisciplined foot soldiers who "abused civilians".As a result of his unruliness, there arose a break-up splinter group from the main sect in 2012 known as Jamaat Ansar al Muslimin fi Bilad as Sudan otherwise known as Ansaru.

It is reported he has thin skin for dissension and often resorts to killing dissidents. He had killed high-profile dissidents such as Abu Muhammad Bauchawi, Abu Osama al Ansari and Sheikh Abd-Malek al Ansari. All these were his military commanders or advisers. He has been proclaimed dead many times by military sources. Only to re-surface afterward via Online posted video where he infamously issues fiery threats to government and its agent. He is thought to be using body double from some quarters because of his seeming invincibility. In June 2012, the United States Department of State offered a bounty reward of $7 million on him. Similarly, the Nigerian government offered a bounty reward of #50 million to anyone who could provide useful information about him.

To date, not any single individual could give an account of him as he is reputed to operate "in the shadows" relying on a few confidants for consultation and command. The latest confirmed video of him was in June 2017 "when he claimed responsibility for the abduction of Nigerian policewomen and criticized the Nigerian government for claiming that Boko Haram has been defeated". Similarly, the self-styled leader, Abubakar Shekau, has currently reluctantly pledged allegiance to Islamic State in Iraq and Syria under the leadership of Abubakar al Baghdadi to further bolster his military campaign. But there was the possibility of him losing de facto leadership of Boko Haram sect.

So he defiantly resisted the initial ISIS unified central command up to the point of no retreat. Eventually, a new arm of a religious sect (purposely for the West African region) was formed with the name of Islamic State West African Province under the commander of Abu Musab al Barnawi.

It is reported the two factions of Boko Haram and ISWAP are usually at daggers drawn with each other (often clashing) but occasionally complements the overall mission of each other which is the re-invention of the socio-political structure of Islam. At this juncture, considering the intractable disposition of Boko Haram and ISWAP in frequently unleashing mayhem on innocent citizens across West African states; it is without gainsaying these insurgents are on rampage not for mere brigandage or criminal showmanship. From the view point of this writing, governments and politico-economic analysts across boundaries have failed to correctly dissect the clear handwriting of these insurgents in terms of their demand. Studies and citizen-centered opinions have attributed regional economic impoverishment as the sole motivator behind the current insurgency challenge. Even though, this can not be totally discountenanced; but the root cause of current Boko Haram/ISWAP challenge is far beyond this. Unequivocally, the root-cause can be traced primarily to inculcation of socio-cultural belief and ideology of campaigners of this violent movement.

A careful and logical analysis of methodology of prosecution of current insurgency challenge would reveal a convergence with earlier campaigns of similar ideology. Notable in this regard was Shehu Usman Dan Fodio revolutionary campaign in the nineteenth century (1804 -1808) which heralded creation of Sokoto Caliphate. It is on record that one main strategy adopted by the foot soldiers of Sokoto Caliphate revolution was guerrilla war.

This is war of attrition fought intermittently and border-less in which a war prosecutor {especially non-state actors} attempts to weaken and frustrate the defense line of an adversary {state actors} during war. This graphically represents the hapless and helpless situation our country {Nigeria} currently finds herself.

This writing would like to digress shortly at this time and debunk certain misinformation and misinterpretations about caliphate in Islam and personality embodiment of Shehu Usman Dan Fodio. First and foremost, esteemed readers of this writing should be informed that there is certainly caliphate structure in Islam. This is a socio-political succession arrangement which ensures continuity in administration of the society. In Islam, the head of a caliphate is known as a caliph and he is responsible for organization of day to day ruling of the society {group of communities or states} through representatives or proxies.

In a newspaper article {The Punch} entitled Islam and religious imperialism, the author claims that 'Islam has been used as a weapon of internal imperialism in Nigeria.

This author's position may be true about modern day Nigeria, but it is never true about Islam. The true position about Islam can be seen in the publication of David Westerlund about Sokoto Caliphate {Islam outside the Arab World}, he reveals 'the jihad resulted in a federal theocratic state, with extensive autonomy for emirates, recognizing the spiritual authority of the caliph or the Sultan of Sokoto'.

Caliphate in Islam is not synonymous with imperialism; but caliph reserves absolute pledge of allegiance {recognition of his supreme authority} from his subjects and council. In another development, the vulgar Femi Fani Kayode made virulent and offensive comments about the venerable personality of Shehu Usman Dan Fodio. In a publication credited to him with the caption Bloody Legacy of Usman Dan Fodio, he resorted to vulgar, insulting comments about personality of the Shehu.

Such as 'genocidal maniac'; 'Islamist terrorist'; he possessed neither 'conscience' nor 'truth'. In addition, in the same publication, he quoted copiously another person whose identity is Lazarus Obinna. It is an open secret laid bare by this writing that both men knowingly otherwise copied verbatim their supposed 'well-researched' facts from Wikipeadia. This writing would challenge both men by criticizing them that information about a venerable personality such as Shehu Usman should not be 'downloaded' from Wikipeadia. Wikipeadia will give just a handful, out of barrage of information available on such an eminent personality.

For case of another time, only an avalanche of original scholarly works {publications and manuscripts majorly in Arabic language or Fulfulde} credited to the Shehu himself or his disciples would contain relevant and sufficient information. How could either

Obinna or FFK have access to these writings?
Shehu Usman Dan Fodio was born in the town of 'maratta' in Gobir {a Hausa Kingdom} in 1754. He was a Fulani ethnic whose family immigrated into Gobir. He started his early Qur'anic education from his father and later had itinerant learning from a host of other teachers.

However, his foremost teacher is reported as Jibril bn Umar {a North African} who shaped his future world outlook by introducing him to classic Islamic teachings such as theology and philosophy. Similarly, his Arab teacher is reported as a great reformer with zero tolerance for anti-Islamic value and practice. Thus, he was part of the latter centuries Arab emissary who introduced and propagated the religion of Islam in West African region.

By 1774, Shehu Usman had completed and perfected his learning and had become an itinerant preacher and

teacher. Most importantly, he carried along the legacy of his Arab teacher and denounced the rampant anti-Islamic polytheistic and unjust attribute of the Hausa elites who reigned in the Kingdoms of that period. Shehu Usman was commonly described as an urbane Fulani ethnic who enjoyed company of the elites as he was said to have access to

royal courts. Similarly, his zero tolerance for injustice and oppression endeared him to his ethnic common men {usually referred to as outcasts in those period} and Hausa peasants as well.

This clearly distinct him from rustic pastorals who may be uncivilized and therefore non-violent. I challenge any one with factual historical record that bears testimony to the widely supposed 'terrorism' of Shehu Usman. Shehu Usman was spiritual head of a caliphate which oversees multitude of subjects who may be uncivilized and belligerent.

It is on record the Shehu himself in one of his writings attributed his life 'similar to life of the Holy Prophet Muhammad' {SAW}. The popular touted 'jihad' of Shehu Usman {1804-1808} as rationale for the erroneously misleading and distorted historical account on his personality is much similar to the jihad prosecuted by Prophet Muhammad {SAW}. To straighten evident records and accounts, the jihad of the prophet of Islam was prosecuted on a defensive mission as

opposed to offensive. Similarly, the jihad of Shehu Usman was spurred as a result of violent opposition and resistance to him from his erstwhile disciple who had then become a Sultan. His name is Yunfa, the Sultan of Gobir. He became antagonistic of reformative preaching of the Shehu and in effect resolved to exterminate his life. Then, Shehu Usman fled to Gudu [a suburb in Western grassland].

At this time, he was declared 'commander of faithfuls' among his teeming supported who represented the down-trodden. From here, an armed group {comprising mainly Fulani nomads} was mobilized to confront and defeat the entire Hausa Kingdom. In an article culled from Straight Talk: Policies, Politics and Effective Leadership {2019} entitled Usman Dan

Fodio and Spirit of Jihad forgotten by Northern Political Leaders; it was disclosed 'his espousal of the philosophy of puritanism, though symbolic of counter-culture, was most endearing and captivating; he jettisoned a life style he considered vulgar, replete with paganism and debauchery; his goal was not to spread his brand of Islam to fellow Muslims or the non-believers; but in truth sought to inspire faith and cleanse his host communities of the apostasy of the

non-believers on the one hand; and the perversion of Islamic faith by its leadership and adherents on the other hand; in deed, he was a Muslim but in principle he was a reformer; he was not motivated by greed or driven by capitalism or theory of caste system; his major short-coming was the imposition of Fulani Emirs as rulers of the

conquered territories, culminating in the near extinction of Hausa culture in the north-west and the Yoruba culture in the middle belt'.

Therefore, the fundamental motive of Shehu Usman was establishment of an admixture of a theocratic society with socio-political culture of the Hausa / Fulani in the new Sokoto Caliphate. An often misquoted account of this era was that the head of the new caliphate {Shehu Usman} reigned by rule of force. This is further from the truth. The correct and proven account is that the Sultan reigned by Islamic religious legal injunctions commonly interpreted as Shariah. A

land-mark distinction of the new caliphate was the formation of a democratic religious state {theocracy} which recognizes personal freedom of all subjects but assumes distinction in their socio-political privileges in terms of benefits from the state. Hence, Muslims alone could be appointed Emirs to direct affairs of subjects; they alone had access to religious centers of education where they are taught classic Islamic knowledge; Muslim merchants voluntarily give of

their wealth to the state {treasury} for re-distribution among the poor. For other subjects who may either be disbelievers {polytheists and apostates} or Christians, they have designated responsibilities under an Islamic state. The disbelievers have no real benefits in the Islamic State and form part of war booty if captured. The Christians are free to practice their faith and would live peacefully if they are at peace with the Muslims. Furthermore, they {Christians} are enforced to similarly contribute to the state treasury a compulsory levy known as 'jizya'. A hall-mark of this era was economic buoyancy of the Caliphate which relied majorly on the huge human resource {partly provided by captured disbelieving slaves}in spearheading agricultural plantation revolution used as source of inter-regional trading.

Another wrong impression circulated as criticism of the then Sokoto Caliphate was the notion of 'a new slaving frontier on the basis of rejuvenated Islam'. This idea is faulty and erroneous to the extent that slave trade, as at then, was not common only to Sokoto Caliphate; but a global network of international trading as a potential avenue of substantial commerce and sovereign might. On the whole, in the Islamic State, there is opportunity of manumission {freeing of slave} if need be and consequent transformation into free-born. This is classic Islamic State as practiced under the Sokoto Caliphate.

Way Forward
Currently, the Nigerian state and environs are embroiled in a diverse internal security challenge ranging from armed banditry, kidnapping and insurgency. However, the most organized and challenging is the insurgency and hence focus of this writing. In addition, the West African insurgency is domiciled in a particular region of the continent {Sahel} and has a defining characteristic of religious coloration. Therefore, this writing is set out with that aim in view and in particular to sensitize esteemed readers to the reality of the fact that Boko Haram / ISWAP challenge is intrinsically tied to establishment of semblance of Islamic state revolution in the challenged region. Therefore, the current national clamor {in the Nigerian state} from the public to the government for resurgence of insurgency resistance in various forms such as renewed community policing, military asset fortification, establishment of supervisory agency on Boko Haram etc may not give desirable result as evident from protracted nature of the battle. The only way forward in the view of this writing is pacifying the ideological interest of the sects by seeking an alternative novel but reassuring course of action. This

novel course of action is for governmental response to the menace to be 'apolitical' and free of usual biases and imperfections. Government needs to work holistically and sincerely committed to unravelling means to resolving all ramifications to the ideological purview of Boko Haram / ISWAP challenge.

To this end, this writing would align completely to the civil {non-military} approach of the government in tackling the menace. The existent Operation Safe Corridor program {for de-radicalizing and re-integrating supposedly repentant insurgents} and proposed supervisory agency for Boko-Haram are both a tip of an iceberg. Both would be laudable only if they toe certain fundamental laid-down procedures and guidelines which precedents can only be recourse through the path of Islamic sciences. To corroborate this, on the negative side, Carnagie Foundation {2018} which is in support of

Operation Safe Corridor program laments it's implementation as not guaranteeing desirable result. Furthermore, on the positive side, Singapore religious organization runs a voluntary Muslim religious teachers who are known as 'asatizah' and who identify religious counselling, dialogue and discussions as veritable approach to de-radicalization.

Armed from this view, this writing would strongly advise Nigerian government to consider and implement the following critical actions and steps in it's efforts at curbing and finding a lasting solution to the menace of internal insurgency:

1} establishment of a modernized, pure Arabic and Islamic learning center across the northern zones {first from north-east} from primary up to University level. These would be totally different from the current 'westernized schools'. In this regard, government needs to keenly re-visit the Al-Majiri reformatory schools started by regime of former President Jonathan.

2} constitution of committee of non-partisan Arabic and Islamic studies experts to nurture establishment of these centers. It is very instructive this committee must work strictly without interference

3} constitution of non-partisan re conciliatory committee {composed of reputable elder statesmen} to act as arbiter between government and insurgents to table their grievances

4} institution of regional agency [Northern Commission] to take care of economic desires of citizens there. This agency would be directly responsible for ameliorating the the rampant impoverishment in the region.

5} lastly, enforcement of legislation where necessary. This writing will close by quoting from an Open Letter to the Nigerian Senate President, Senator Ahmed Lawan from the former second republic Senate President, Senator Ameh Ebute as thus: 'peace and security, which every nation craves to enjoy is not a commodity that can be achieved in a day; just like war is not won in a day. Whilst the military can subdue and neutralize the threats posed by the insurgents, the ultimate foundation to peace lies in the hands of stakeholders for the region who are expected to navigate unconventional means to engage the youths and the people generally'. Sherif Jimoh wrote from Kwara State

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