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Jonathan and Obama
As part of the programme outlined for his recent visit to the United States, where he attended the summit on nuclear weapon, Acting President Goodluck Jonathan featured on the Cable News Network (CNN), where he was interviewed by Christiane Amanpour.

In the interview, which is reproduced below, courtesy of CNN, Jonathan, unfolded his option for 2011 elections and his priority in government. He also said that in June, when the tenure of chairman of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC), Prof Maurice Iwu and other electoral commissioners ends, the government would review their cases.

He also spoke on other things.
Thank you very much, indeed, for joining us on this programme.

Thank you for finding time to discuss with me.
Can I ask you, first, what an extraordinary name. How did 'Goodluck' come to be your name?

I don't know. I have to ask my father.
Have you had good luck? And do you think you'll need more than good luck to face down the incredible array of challenges that's on your plate?

Well, the issue of good luck, I don't really believe that the good luck is an issue. But at present, I've been facing a lot of challenges. What some people will attribute to good luck could have been disastrous under some circumstances.

Well, let me ask you this. You are now acting president, because the president, Mr. Yar'Adua, is unwell.

Have you seen him since he has come back from his medical absence in Saudi Arabia?

No, I have not seen him.
Why not?
The thinking of the family is that they should isolate him from most of the key actors in government. I have not seen him. The Senate president has not seen him … and at every single government function, I have not seen him.

Doesn't that cause anxiety among the people?
Yes, it does. It does. Obviously, it does, but we cannot influence his family's thinking.

Would you prefer that the family allowed you to visit him?

Yes, of course. But I will not want to force.
What is his actual state of health? This also is a mystery.

I can't say exactly. Only the medical doctors can.

Have they told you?
No, they haven't.
Have they made any public statements?
Not quite. Not now. At the beginning, yes, when he left for Saudi Arabia, I think in the second week or so, within the first week, we were told that acute pericarditis. After that, no other statement has been issued.

So if he can receive religious leaders, why can he not receive at least the acting president who's acting in his name?

Well, religious leaders are there for blessings. Probably that is why they asked the religious leaders to go and pray for him. We are a very, very religious society.

Do you believe that those around him are trying to undermine you or your new cabinet?

I wouldn't say they are trying to undermine me, because the laws of the land are very clear. And, of course, that is why, in the first place, the constitution is designed for two people to be in charge of government at every time, one superior and one inferior.

Do you think he will ever come back to government?

I can't say that. It's difficult for any of us, as mortals, to say so.

So, you are now acting president, and you have essentially a year, because elections will be held this time 2011.

What is your most pressing issue?
The most pressing issue for Nigerians now, in terms of basic infrastructure, is power.

You mean electricity?
Electricity. Outside that, what is central to the minds of Nigerians now is an election that their votes will count, free and fair elections because we've been accused, as a country, that our elections somehow are questioned. And I promise Nigerians that they will surely get that and I've done some experiments.

The next thing that Nigerians worry about is the issue of corruption. You know we've been accused, as people who are in a privileged position in government, of amassing wealth at the expense of society. So, they expect us to take these two issues seriously.

So, what can you do to take those issues seriously? Obviously, the issue of good governance, of free elections, free of corruption is central, and you heard the United States has also said just now that you must remove the head of the election commission, Maurice Iwu. Will you do that?

You see, the issue of - the electoral body - in fact, I even told the audience I addressed this morning, the issue is whether the present electoral body can conduct free and fair election or not. And I told them that, yes, they can, because I have done it with the same people.

On the issue of the people at INEC, I told them that, look, between now and ending of June, most of the officials at the national level - they're called commissioners - their tenure will end, and we're going to review them.

Within this period that I have been acting president, I have conducted three elections. They are conducted by INEC and it was free and fair. Only on Saturday, we conducted local council elections in the Federal Capital Territory and all the information is that, apart from one or two that had some few discrepancies, they have been very peaceful, very credible… So, that is the issue. So, the issue is beyond one person.

I'm not defending the chairman.
Do you think he will stay or will he be removed?
All of them we'll review. And any one of them that we feel is not competent definitely…

Do you feel that Mr. Iwu is competent?
I know that this question continues to come up. What I've said is… the issue is beyond Mr. Iwu.

I know. But I'm specifically talking about him, because it's come up in your meetings with U.S. officials.

Yes, I agree that within the period, there are quite a number of controversies. I agree. There are quite a number of concerns. There are quite a number of controversies. So, I know what I'm telling you; that this very Iwu, I'm not trying to argue for him. The Iwu we are talking about conducted these past three elections that I've made reference to that are credible.

So, the issue is beyond Iwu because we must set up an electoral system and our regulations and laws that will make sure that anybody who is appointed to that office should be able to conduct acceptable elections. And that is my focus.

Will you run in 2011? Will you present yourself as a presidential candidate?

For now, I don't want to think about it, because the circumstances of the day are quite worrisome. I came in as the vice president to run with President Yar'Adua. Of course, getting close to period of election, he took ill. And I have to take over under somewhat controversial circumstances. Only last week, I reconsidered the cabinet. So, let us see how Nigeria will move forward first. If the country is not moving, what will I tell Nigerians I want to contest for? Yes, I'm a politician and I would be interested in politics, since I'm still relatively young.

But the — the reason I ask you is because…
Yes, but I cannot even tell myself now. I must assess myself.

I understand.
You cannot just wake up and say you want to contest an election to be the president of a country. First of all, you must say, can you really bring the dividends… three months after which we review ourselves.

Well, I'm asking you because there is this informal agreement among various locations, North and South, which has been closely followed about taking turns at the presidency and that power must shift. For instance, Mr. Yar'Adua, who is from the North, has not even finished one term, and he should have a second term, according to your informal agreement. You're from the South.

So, it's kind of not your turn; so that's why I'm asking you — and everybody's very interested as to whether you will present yourself for elections.

Yes, those interests are there. I was part of a lot of meetings in the ruling party, but, basically, the issue of whether I will contest or not… The elections in Nigeria are not only the presidential election.

There are options for me if I want to contest election. I recontest as a vice president to anybody. I can contest as a president, because the laws allow me. But that is not my own priority now. My priority now is to see how, within this little period left, what impact can we show?

But let me just get something straight. You say that you can contest and it's possible that you will contest, yes?

It is, of course.
Yes? It's possible that you will contest then?
These are options. I don't want to think about it.

One other question on elections. Mr. Ibrahim Babangida, former Nigerian military leader, who seized power, essentially and ruled for about eight years in the late '80s and '90s, says that he wants to contest in 2011. Is that acceptable?

He's very free. There is no law stopping Babangida from contesting. Babaginda and any other military heads of state are very free to contest.

What would that say about modern Nigeria?
It depends on the people. I will say that the votes of the people must count. Babangida is a leader that has been head of state for about eight years plus, just like you said. Babangida has his friends. He has done some good jobs. But as an individual, Babangida is very free to contest the presidency. Other military leaders are interested in contesting the presidency, not only Babangida, and they are all free. On that 11th day, Nigerian votes will count, and not me.

Mr. Acting President, one of your big challenges, as well, is to try to re-energize the peace process, the amnesty process in, in fact, your homeland. Isn't it, the Niger Delta area? There was a whole system set in place, but it seems to be fraying, and there's a lot of concern, particularly given how vital it is as an oil-producing part of the world.

What are you going to do about that?
Well, what's happened is that people don't really understand the total concept of the amnesty. The amnesty is divided into three phases, the disarmament phase. That is the phase where militants surrender their weapons. Then rehabilitation phase and reintegration phase.

Some of these militants have been in that armed struggle for a very long time. And when young people are involved in carrying weapons against the state for very long time, there is a tendency for them to go into some forms of aberration-type behaviour; so you have a process that you must follow.

After the disarmament, the next is rehabilitation. You have to rehabilitate them. Then you have to properly integrate them into the society. So, during the process of rehabilitation, you must re-orientate their thinking and make them to learn some skills that will enable them and a decent living through the proper reintegration process.

We are trying to make the best — up to this time. But now we are in rehabilitation. The disarmament was the military exercise… so the case of rehabilitation and reintegration has now moved into the hands of this president's adviser to the president on the Niger Delta. We have a good programme.

So, the first batch of trainees are going to move to their camps in the crossover state by the third week of April, so we have to do them in batches. The total number of militants are about 20,191, little more than 20, 000; so it's a lot of youth. And it's not easy to manage those number of people.

What about Jos, which we just saw an explosion of violence there between Muslims and Christians? What can you do about that?

No, no, no, it's not a problem between Muslims and Christians. That is quite wrong, actually. The problem of Jos is — Jos occupies a plateau, quite a high land area in Nigeria. And that's an area where a number of people settle outside the indigenous population. In fact, even when Lagos was a Federal Capital Territory, most — most Europeans who came to Nigeria, preferred to stay in Jos.

Because of the elevation, the temperature is very low. It's like a sub-temperate climate where the temperature sometimes could drop up to minus two. So, there are lot of settlers from the southeastern part of Nigeria, from the southwestern part of Nigeria, and from the extreme north; so most of these settlers now play big in the economy, local economy. So, the indigenous population feels that they have been excluded from the economy, and that has been bringing conflict from the early '60s.

But what can you do about it?
We are discussing with the traditional rulers; we are discussing with religious leaders; we are discussing with opinion leaders. That is to appeal to them and they are responding. Of course, we're also providing security, because, first of all, you must provide adequate security to make sure that people don't carry weapons and intimidate or kill others, so that is being done. Then we also are appealing to their conscience using their leaders, both opinion leaders, both their religious leaders, both traditional leaders. And it is paying off.

It is paying off?
Do you think that kind of violence will stop?
I cannot say it will stop completely, but our commitment is to make sure that it stops.

With issues like Jos or the Niger Delta, with the fact that, as you mentioned yourself, there's a severe power and electricity crisis, and all sorts of other issues. How do you make international investors feel confident? Even kidnappings there are, as you've said yourself, need to stop.

Realise Nigeria is a very big country. And some of these issues people raise in the media that make it look as if the whole country is rampant. It's not quite so. We have a letter of international investors. Even in the Niger Delta, you have the oil companies everywhere. Yes, we have these occasional issues of kidnapping, but it doesn't stop. But we are also strengthening the local security system, the police force. We are trying to set up a special fund to make sure that we're strengthening the police to maintain law and order. In addition to making sure that we provide what the people will need, we are also doing what we think is right to increase the security, because you must secure the area.

You've just had meetings with President Obama. What was the most important issue that you discussed? I know President Obama discussed many things, including the issue of a joint fight against terrorism.

Yes, of course…
It was the Nigerian youth who tried to set himself and set a plane on fire over the United States.

Of course, that is an unfortunate incident. But I know you know more than me. When that issue came up, it was a global issue, and everybody traced the history of a young man. This man - this young - man left Nigeria long ago, and he got indoctrinated in the West.

But do you, nonetheless, think it's an issue that has to be combated, terrorism?

Of course. Nigeria — you know that the Non-Proliferation Treaty, Nigeria is one of the countries that signed it. We believe that the whole globe must be peaceful. We cannot encourage that. Nigerians are not terrorists. We know the problem as African leaders. We are suffering from the use of small arms and light weapons. In fact, in Africa, the use of small arms and light weapons is more devastating to us than even the issue of nuclear terrorism, because Africans have died from small arms and light weapons, more than the nuclear terrorism, because most of these weapons used in the former Soviet Union are no longer relevant, and they've all been shipped into Africa. Most of the small arms and light weapons manufactured in America and European countries are shipped down to Africa, and this is a cost of most of this crisis we're having, this insecurity we're having, so we totally support.

You've got 12 months, essentially, to enact the reforms you're talking about, bringing about the changes, whether it's to election law, whether it's to the issue of peace. How much do you really think you can achieve in this short period of time?

We'll do our best. Some of these human issues you can achieve significantly, like we talk about electoral reforms and conducting clean elections. We don't need 100 years to do that. We don't even need a year to do that, because they're human factors. And a few months, we should be able to set up a system that can conduct free and fair elections. But all that is like basic infrastructure that need a period; that you conceptualize it, you figure out the design, you figure the planning, environmental assessment, and so on before the physical execution of the projects. Those ones will take some time.

But still, people will see that you've set up a clear roadmap. If you think the most challenging infrastructure that we have, the power infrastructure, the electric power infrastructure, we must set up a clear agenda that people will know that we are moving forward and we have milestones that we can benchmark you.

It's an election period. Immediately after elections, government's activities tend to slow down because of, of course, they are key positions that are in government. So we have that kind of a challenge. We don't really even have 12 months. We can't even claim to have five months. But what we promise is that within the shortest possible time, we take the things that we believe we can leave some footprints, but most importantly for Nigerians to see that we are serious and we are committed.