IMF Executive Board Concludes 2013 Article IV Consultation with Ghana

By International Monetary Fund (IMF)
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IMF Executive Board Concludes 2013 Article IV Consultation with Ghana

ACCRA, Ghana, June 18, 2013/African Press Organization (APO)/ -- On June 12, 2013, the Executive Board of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) concluded the Article IV consultation with Ghana.1


Economic growth continued at a robust pace of 8 percent in 2012 amid rising fiscal and external imbalances. Fiscal pressures came to the fore in a mounting public sector wage bill and costly energy subsidies that pushed the deficit close to 12 percent of GDP. The fiscal expansion led to a significant deterioration in the public debt ratio and contributed to a widening deficit in the external current account, with the latter also reflecting sizeable foreign direct investment (FDI).

The policy mix deteriorated in the course of 2012. While fiscal policy became increasingly expansionary, the Bank of Ghana tightened monetary policy in the second quarter of the year to arrest a rapid depreciation of the cedi. The currency subsequently stabilized, with recent depreciations in line with inflation differentials, but at the cost of high real interest rates. Consumer price inflation stayed in the single digits in 2012, helped in part by low food and repressed domestic fuel prices. With rising core inflation (excluding food and energy) and recent increases in fuel prices, inflation has moved back above 10 percent.

The growth momentum continues into 2013, with increased oil production projected to keep overall GDP growth close to 8 percent. Non-oil growth is likely to decelerate, however, as a result of energy disruptions and high real interest rates. Survey-based inflation expectations remain elevated at above 10 percent. The current account deficit is projected to stay high at 12 percent of GDP, despite a moderation in import growth, reflecting a weaker outlook for cocoa and gold exports. Staff projects a small reduction in the fiscal deficit to 10 percent of GDP this year, about 1 percent of GDP higher than the authorities' budget projections, mainly reflecting higher cost of energy subsidies.

While Ghana benefits from strong democratic institutions and favorable prospects for oil and gas, a reduction in macroeconomic imbalances over the medium-term is contingent on strengthened policies. Non-oil growth is projected to stabilize at a still robust level of 5–6 percent, and inflation should gradually decline as policies are rebalanced. A planned reduction in the fiscal deficit to about 6 percent of GDP is feasible by 2015, if measures are implemented as envisaged. This, together with increased oil and gas production from new fields, would reduce the current account deficit to about 7½ percent of GDP by 2018, financed in large part by strong FDI.

Executive Board Assessment

Executive Directors commended the great strides Ghana has made in reducing poverty and reaching lower middle income status. With favorable prospects for oil and gas production and a supportive business environment, Directors saw strong potential for sustained and inclusive growth, provided current macroeconomic vulnerabilities are addressed decisively.

Directors were concerned about the reemergence of a large fiscal deficit in 2012, widening external imbalances, and rising domestic debt, which expose the economy to risks from weaker terms of trade or reduced capital inflows. In addition, high domestic interest rates, due to excessive government borrowing, could curtail Ghana's growth momentum.

Directors underscored the need for decisive action to rebuild fiscal and external buffers and reduce public debt, and in particular, stressed the importance of regaining control over the public wage bill. They welcomed the decision to remove fuel subsidies and called for similar action to adjust electricity prices, as a crucial step to tackle Ghana's energy supply problems. Improving revenue mobilization, including implementation of envisaged tax policy measures, is also a priority. The mid-term policy review would be an opportunity to identify additional measures to secure the fiscal targets.

Directors saw a need for more ambitious fiscal consolidation over the medium term to ensure sustainable debt dynamics, allow the buildup of official reserves, and lower the current account deficit. Realigning public spending from subsidies and wages to investment would also support future growth. Given the growing reliance on nonconcessional financing, Directors welcomed the authorities' efforts to strengthen debt management and investment planning.

Directors supported the maintenance of a tight monetary stance until inflationary pressures subside and fiscal consolidation is firmly established. They recommended containing monetary financing of the fiscal deficit, and saw scope for further improvements in the inflation targeting framework to enhance the effectiveness of monetary policy. This could involve improved forecasting, enhanced communication to the public, and rolling one to two year inflation targets, to better anchor expectations.

Directors noted that the banking system has grown rapidly and is competitive. They recommended higher minimum capital buffers to contain vulnerabilities, including the risk of increasing nonperforming loans. Directors encouraged the authorities to follow through on the 2011 FSAP recommendations by further upgrading financial sector legislation and supervision, and deepening cooperation with regional counterparts. They also stressed the need to address the issues pertaining to the remaining weak banks, and advised the Bank of Ghana to divest its financial stake in the banking sector.

Ghana: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators, 2010-131

2010 2011 2012 2013

Act. Act. Est. Proj.

(Annual percent change ; unless otherwise specified)

National account and prices

GDP at constant prices 1

8.0 15.0 7.9 7.9

Real GDP (nonoil)

6.5 9.4 7.8 5.9

Real GDP per capita

5.3 12.1 5.2 5.2

GDP deflator

16.5 13.0 13.3 13.7

Consumer prices

Consumer price index (annual average)

107 8.7 9.2 10.3

Consumer price index (end of period)

8.6 8.6 8.8 10.8

Money and credit

Net domestic assets2

27.1 28.7 51.9 44.8

Credit to the private sector2

25.7 29.0 32.9 38.4

Broad money (M3, including foreign currency deposits)

34.6 32.2 24.3 27.8

Velocity (GDP/M2, end of period)

3.3 3.1 3.0 2.9

Base money

45.0 31.1 36.0 24.0

Banks' lending rate (weighted average; percent)

… 25.9 25.7 …

Policy rate (in percent, end of period)

13.5 12.5 15.0 …

(Percent of GDP)

External sector

Current account balance

(including official grants)

-8.6 -9.1 -12.2 -11.9

(excluding official grants)

-9.2 -9.7 -12.8 -12.4

Foreign direct investment (net)

7.9 8.3 8.1 7.3

External public debt (including IMF)

20.0 21.0 21.9 22.5

NPV of external debt outstanding

8.4 11.5 10.8 9.4

percent of exports of goods and services

28.6 30.6 26.0 26.9

Gross international reserves (mn. of US$)

4,680 5,383 5,349 4,927

Months of prospective Imp. of goods services

2.9 2.9 2.8 2.5

Total donor support (millions of US$)

1,595 1,597 1,272 1,869

percent of GDP

3.5 2.7 3.1 4.1

Central government budget


Total revenue

14.5 17.3 17.7 19.1


2.4 2.0 1.6 1.4

Total expenditure

22.8 20.7 27.7 28.0

Arrears clearance and VAT refunds

1.1 2.1 0.1 0.9

Overall balance (financing basis)

-7.2 -4.0 -11.8 -10.0

Net domestic financing

4.7 3.3 9.3 7.1

Central government debt (gross)

46.4 43.7 50.2 51.4

Domestic debt

26.3 22.8 28.3 29.0

External debt

20.1 21.0 21.9 22.5

Central government debt (net)

43.2 39.9 48.0 49.5

Memorandum items:

Nominal GDP (millions of GHc)

46,043 59,816 73,109 89,689

GDP per capita (millions of U.S. dollars)

1,358 1,594 1,622 1,786

Sources: Ghanaian authorities; and IMF staff estimates and projections.

1 Based on new national accounts rebased to 2006.

2 Percent of broad money (including foreign currency deposits) at the beginning of the period.

1 Under Article IV of the IMF's Articles of Agreement, the IMF holds bilateral discussions with members, usually every year. A staff team visits the country, collects economic and financial information, and discusses with officials the country's economic developments and policies. On return to headquarters, the staff prepares a report, which forms the basis for discussion by the Executive Board. At the conclusion of the discussion, the Managing Director, as Chairman of the Board, summarizes the views of Executive Directors, and this summary is transmitted to the country's authorities. An explanation of any qualifiers used in summings up can be found here: